pediculosis capitis


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pe·dic·u·lo·sis ca·p'i·tis

the presence of lice on the scalp, seen especially in children, with nits attached to hairs.
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PEDICULOSIS CAPITIS
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PEDICULOSIS CAPITIS

pediculosis capitis

A scalp infection caused by head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, a common parasite in children. Outbreaks are common in schools, esp. among children between the ages of 5 and 11. The infection is transmitted through use of personal items such as hair ornaments, combs, hairbrushes, hats, scarves, or coats or through direct contact between the heads of two children. Lice, which feed on blood obtained by biting the skin, cause itching, esp. around the ears, in the occipital area, and at the nape of the neck. Long-standing infestations may produce chronic inflammation. The adult louse is seen rarely; diagnosis usually is made through the presence of eggs (nits), which appear as whitish sacs attached to the hair. See: illustration

Symptoms

Itching and eczematous dermatitis. In long-standing, neglected cases, scratching may result in marked inflammation. Secondary infection by bacteria may occur, with formation of pustules, crusts, and suppuration. Hair may become matted and malodorous.

Treatment

Therapies for lice infestations are modified frequently, to match the resistance of lice to current therapies and to minimize the toxicities of medications. Manual removal of lice always is appropriate and is strongly recommended by lice specialists. Others recommend the use of insecticides (pediculocides).

Patient care

The patient and family are taught how to apply medication (lindane, permethrin, pyrethrins, piperonyl butoxide, malathion) to dry hair for lice and are warned that the eyes should be immediately flushed with copious amounts of water if the medication accidentally contacts them. They are informed about minimizing the spread of infection by washing or dry cleaning all clothing and linen used in the home, delousing of rugs and upholstered furniture with sprays or vacuuming, keeping combs and brushes separate, and using medicinal shampoos if there has been contact with the patient.

illustration
See also: pediculosis
References in periodicals archive ?
The commonest cutaneous manifestations seen in this study are parasitic infestations such as scabies and pediculosis capitis.
Pediculosis capitis infestation in school children of a low socioeconomic area of the North Gaza Governorate.
However, a meta-analysis of 5 studies on the use of wet combing for treatment of Pediculosis capitis showed variable cure rates from 38% to 57% when carried out every 3 to 4 days (Tebruegge & Runnacles, 2007).
The focus for prevention of Pediculosis capitis involves better detection, control, and treatment of affected individuals to prevent the spread of infestation.
Clinicians, school nurses, and community workers should educate the community on signs and symptoms of Pediculosis capitis.
1% lindane shampoo in treating pediculosis capitis.
Epidemiological aspects of pediculosis capitis and treatment evaluation in primary school children in Iran.
A study of pediculosis capitis among primary school children in Delhi.
Prevalence Of Pediculosis Capitis Among Primary female School Students In An Egyptian Village.
Angeliki, Prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in Greece and risk factors: a questionnaire survey.
Although head lice account for a substantial number of missed schooldays in children, among others, it is surprising that pediculosis capitis is not monitored and prevalence is not regularly reported.