The present benefit provided by the non-circular chainring on pedalling kinetics differed depending on the sprint phase.
In contrast, the non-circular chainring significantly changed pedalling kinetics during the pedal downstroke at maximal velocity, with significantly higher Finstmax (+7%).
The three fullest treatments of pedalling in early pedagogical works, those of Johann Peter Milchmeyer (1797), Louis Adam (1804), and Steibelt (1809), are transcribed in English translation in an appendix, but they are surprisingly unhelpful in revealing the actual state of the art at that critical period.
He comes up with the happily chosen term "syncopated pedalling" - the technique whereby the pedal is raised at the moment a chord or note is played, or very shortly afterwards, and depressed again immediately," to produce a "seamless legato" (p.
Steibelt's output provides an interesting bridge between Paris and London conventions; his ??me Pot Pourri (1793), composed for his Paris audience, is the first work to contain pedalling instructions for the sustaining and lute (or harp) pedals, both found on French square pianos of the day.
Milchmeyer, whose treatise Die wahre Art das Pianoforte zu spielen (1797) includes a chapter devoted to pedalling. An important early source, Milchmeyer's chapter on 'mutations' (Veranderungen), is translated in an appendix in Rowland's book.
He has written on a number of aspects of early piano performance: his book on pianoforte pedalling
is published by Cambridge University Press.