Influence of environmental enrichment on injurious pecking and perching behaviour in young turkeys.
The effects of light intensity and light source on injuries due to pecking of male domestic turkeys (Maleagris gallopavo).
Differential effects of increased stocking density, mediated by increased flock size, on feather pecking and aggression in laying hens.
Time-budgets, comfort behaviours and injurious pecking of turkeys housed in pairs.
The latter signal reduces the price investors are willing to pay for the equity issue resulting in a pecking order of corporate financing; managers will prefer using internal financing, then using debt, and then issuing equity.
A pecking order model for repurchase decisions is presented in Shyam-Sunder and Myers (1999).
When one compares the pecking order theory for issue decisions with the pecking order theory for repurchase decisions, it becomes clear that both theories provide differing rationales.
Shyam-Sunder and Myers (1999) aim to capture the pecking order theory in an empirical model that relates financing deficits to net debt issues: (1)
Drinking behaviour : The number of birds pecking at water at ambient temperature ranged from 40 to 79% per treatment per age group (Table 2).
Sensitivity to temperature-drinking of hot water : The number of birds pecking at hot water ranged from 50 to 80% per treatment for the three age groups (Table 2).
Sensitivity to pressure-force used to peck at food : The number of birds pecking at food in this test ranged from 30% in 12-week old non-trimmed birds to 70% in 22-week old non-trimmed birds (Table 3).
Sensitivity to pressure-force used to peck at a red disk : The number of birds pecking at the red disc ranged from 40 to 55% (Table 3).