Clearly, the structural links between actin filaments and integrins are regulated in at least some cell types, and it would not be unreasonable to hypothesize that agents known to alter cell behavior may do so by affecting the expression or function of actin binding proteins such as vinculin, talin, paxillin
and integrins that are recruited to focal adhesions (Mwakikunga et al., 2011).
Zhao et al., "Paxillin
expression is closely linked to the pathogenesis, progression and prognosis of gastric carcinomas," Oncology Letters, vol.
Jacobson, "JNK phosphorylates paxillin
and regulates cell migration," Nature, vol.
In pancreatic cancer, [LPA.sub.1] and [LPA.sub.3] promote proliferation, invasion through MMP2 secretion, and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Paxillin
, as well as drug resistance [117, 118].
Primary antibodies used in immunofluorescence staining were vinculin (EPR8185; Epitomics) and paxillin
In addition, IPTP also affected the paxillin
signaling pathway, which is involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, an important process in adipocyte differentiation (Kawaguchi et al.
Feng et al., "Fascin-1, ezrin and paxillin
contribute to the malignant progression and are predictors of clinical prognosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma," PLoS ONE, vol.
In order to propagate intracellular signaling cascades, integrins need to connect actin cytoskeleton by recruiting a small repertoire of linker proteins such as paxillin
, talin, vinculin, and a-actinin [55, 56] as the short cytoplasmic tails of these multi-subunit proteins lack actin-binding capacity , the only exception being integrin [beta]4, which has ~1000 amino acids in its cytoplasmic tail (compared to that of a typical integrin j subunit, which is less than 75 amino acids long) and connects to the keratin cytoskeleton specifically .
Vinculin is a large protein that binds multiple cytoskeletal proteins, actin, [alpha-]actinin, talin, paxillin
, VASP, ponsin, vinexin, and protein kinase C (PKC) which have been suggested to be the adhesion scaffold that connects early adhesion sites to actin-driven protrusive machinery in enabling motility .
Immunoblotting was performed using primary antibodies against Src, phosphorylated-Src (p-Src), paxillin
, and phosphorylated-paxillin (p-PXNCell Signaling Technology, Beverly, MA) and ERK1/2, phosphorylated-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), c-Fos, C/EBP-[beta], phosphorylated-C/EBP-[beta] (p-C/EBP-[beta]), FAK, and phosphorylated-FAK (p-FAK)(Santa Cruz, CA, USA).
Zhang et al., "Overexpression of paxillin
correlates with tumor progression and predicts poor survival in glioblastoma," CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 2016.
These include the nucleus (tagged by the protein lamin B1), mitochondria (Tom20), microtubules (alpha-tubulin), cell-to-cell junctions (desmoplakin) and adhesion (paxillin