Helicase Receptors: A class of proteins that act as intracellular pattern recognition receptors
and play a central role in the innate immune system; they recognize the presence of viruses in the cells and initiate antiviral responses.
(19.) Kurt-Jones EA, Popova L, Kwinn L, Haynes LM, Jones LP, Tripp RA, et al., Pattern recognition receptors
TLR4 and CD14 mediate response to respiratory syncytial virus.
It acts through a variety of primitive and more advanced mechanisms, including the complement cascade, pattern recognition receptors
, and macrophages to identify and target foreign intruders.
Keratinocytes surrounding a wound increased expression of the genes coding for the microbial pattern recognition receptors
CD14 and TLR2, complementing an increase in cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression.
These receptors were later named pattern recognition receptors
or PRRs because they have the ability to recognize molecules that occur across species in a large class of disease-causing microbes.
Acknowledging the enormous expansion of this field as researchers have identified high resolution structures of pattern recognition receptors
, contributors detail how cells sense signals to activate the innate immune response.
Appropriate areas of research include, but are not limited to: 1) Characterization of host cells involved in the innate immune response to protozoa; 2) Identification of novel pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition receptors
on host cells; 3) Characterization of mediators of innate immunity that are produced by host cells stimulated by protozoa; 4) Elucidation of the intracellular signaling pathways in the mammalian innate immune cells that are stimulated by protozoa; 5) Comparison of human versus animal model molecular responses to protozoan pathogens or their components; 6) Human or animal model gene mutations or polymorphisms associated with distinctive innate immune responses to protozoa.
Together with a class of pattern recognition receptors
called Toll-like receptors (TLRs) at the surface of monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils, this complex induces second-messenger and signal transduction pathways (5).
Inflammatory caspases are activated within so-called inflammasomes, Cytosolic signalling platforms that are assembled by pattern recognition receptors
upon the detection of pathogen- or host-derived danger signals.