1. the breaking of a part, especially a bone.
2. a break in the continuity of bone. Fractures may be caused by trauma, by twisting due to muscle spasm, or indirect loss of leverage or by disease that results in decalcification of the bone.
separation of a small fragment of bone cortex at the site of attachment of a ligament or tendon.
fracture of the orbital floor caused by a sudden increase of intraorbital pressure due to traumatic force; the orbital contents herniate into the maxillary sinus so that the inferior rectus or inferior oblique muscle may become incarcerated in the fracture site, producing diplopia on looking up.
one that appears on a radiograph as a fine, hairlike line, the segments of bone not being separated; sometimes seen in fractures of the skull.
one that does not produce an open wound.
one in which the bone is splintered or crushed.
one involving the entire cross-section of the bone.
see open fracture (below).
one produced by compression.
see open fracture (below).
fracture of the skull in which a fragment is depressed. See also depression
one at the site of injury.
fracture of a bone near an articulation with concomitant dislocation of that joint.
fracture of a bone in two places.
a crack extending from a surface into, but not through, a long bone.
one in which one side of a bone is broken, the other being bent.
fracture in which one fragment is firmly driven into the other.
one that does not involve the complete cross-section of the bone.
one at a point distant from the site of injury.
greenstick or incomplete fracture.
fracture of a fetal bone incurred in utero.
lead pipe fracture
one in which the bone cortex is slightly compressed and bulged on one side with a slight crack on the other side of the bone.
a large space between the displaced ends of the bone has been filled by new bone.
there is still a wide translucent space between the ends of the broken bone.
a common type, usually seen in the shaft of a long bone, such as the femur, tibia or humerus.
Oblique fractures of the radius and ulna. By permission from Lamb CR, Diagnostic Imaging of the Dog and Cat, Mosby, 1993
one in which a wound through the adjacent or overlying soft tissues communicates with the site of the break; called also compound fracture. A classification system has been used which is based on the mechanism of injury and the extent of tissue damage. In type I, a bone fragment was briefly forced through the skin leaving a communicating wound; type II fractures are caused by impact and there is damage to overlying tissues and exposure of the bone; in type III, there is extensive damage and loss of overlying tissues, including shearing and degloving wounds, with loss of vascular supply.
one due to weakening of the bone structure by pathological processes, such as neoplasia, osteomalacia or osteomyelitis.
fracture of the femur passing through the greater trochanter.
creates a saucer-shaped fragment; caused usually by direct trauma at midshaft in a long bone. Likely to create a sequestrum.
one in which a flat piece of underlying bone or tooth is separated or lost. Common in carpal bones of horses and in teeth.
one in which the bone has been twisted apart.
the separation of a tendon from its insertion, taking with it a piece of bone. See also avulsion fracture (above).
one with a central point of injury, from which radiate numerous fissures.
fracture produced by the stress created by the pull of muscles without the intervention of trauma or extreme weight-bearing.
there is no discontinuity of the bone as a whole but microscopic examination shows fractured trabeculae.
one at right angles to the axis of the bone.
one due to a nutritional (trophic) disturbance.