pathological fracture


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Related to pathological fracture: stress fracture

pathological fracture

pathologic fracture

A fracture that would not otherwise occur were it not for pathological weakening of the bone due to osteoporosis, metastasis, infection, metabolic disorders or other systemic or local disease.

pathological fracture

A fracture of a diseased or weakened bone caused by a force that would not have fractured a healthy bone. The underlying disease may be a metastasized cancer, primary cancer of the bone, or osteoporosis.

Patient care

The limbs and joints of at-risk patients are gently and carefully supported when repositioning, exercising, or mobilizing. If such patients fall or are injured, and report limb, pelvic, or back pain or inability to bear weight, the patient and the affected limb should be stabilized and - diagnostic imaging obtained.

See also: fracture

fracture

1. the breaking of a part, especially a bone.
2. a break in the continuity of bone. Fractures may be caused by trauma, by twisting due to muscle spasm, or indirect loss of leverage or by disease that results in decalcification of the bone.

avulsion fracture
separation of a small fragment of bone cortex at the site of attachment of a ligament or tendon.
blow-out fracture
fracture of the orbital floor caused by a sudden increase of intraorbital pressure due to traumatic force; the orbital contents herniate into the maxillary sinus so that the inferior rectus or inferior oblique muscle may become incarcerated in the fracture site, producing diplopia on looking up.
capillary fracture
one that appears on a radiograph as a fine, hairlike line, the segments of bone not being separated; sometimes seen in fractures of the skull.
closed fracture
one that does not produce an open wound.
comminuted fracture
one in which the bone is splintered or crushed.
complete fracture
one involving the entire cross-section of the bone.
compound fracture
see open fracture (below).
compression fracture
one produced by compression.
contaminated fracture
see open fracture (below).
depressed fracture
fracture of the skull in which a fragment is depressed. See also depression fracture.
direct fracture
one at the site of injury.
dislocation fracture
fracture of a bone near an articulation with concomitant dislocation of that joint.
double fracture
fracture of a bone in two places.
fissure fracture
a crack extending from a surface into, but not through, a long bone.
greenstick fracture
one in which one side of a bone is broken, the other being bent.
impacted fracture
fracture in which one fragment is firmly driven into the other.
incomplete fracture
one that does not involve the complete cross-section of the bone.
indirect fracture
one at a point distant from the site of injury.
interperiosteal fracture
greenstick or incomplete fracture.
intrauterine fracture
fracture of a fetal bone incurred in utero.
lead pipe fracture
one in which the bone cortex is slightly compressed and bulged on one side with a slight crack on the other side of the bone.
malunion fracture
a large space between the displaced ends of the bone has been filled by new bone.
nonunion fracture
there is still a wide translucent space between the ends of the broken bone.
oblique fracture
a common type, usually seen in the shaft of a long bone, such as the femur, tibia or humerus.
Enlarge picture
Oblique fractures of the radius and ulna. By permission from Lamb CR, Diagnostic Imaging of the Dog and Cat, Mosby, 1993
open fracture
one in which a wound through the adjacent or overlying soft tissues communicates with the site of the break; called also compound fracture. A classification system has been used which is based on the mechanism of injury and the extent of tissue damage. In type I, a bone fragment was briefly forced through the skin leaving a communicating wound; type II fractures are caused by impact and there is damage to overlying tissues and exposure of the bone; in type III, there is extensive damage and loss of overlying tissues, including shearing and degloving wounds, with loss of vascular supply.
pathological fracture
one due to weakening of the bone structure by pathological processes, such as neoplasia, osteomalacia or osteomyelitis.
pertrochanteric fracture
fracture of the femur passing through the greater trochanter.
Salter fracture
saucer fracture
creates a saucer-shaped fragment; caused usually by direct trauma at midshaft in a long bone. Likely to create a sequestrum.
simple fracture
closed fracture.
slab fracture
one in which a flat piece of underlying bone or tooth is separated or lost. Common in carpal bones of horses and in teeth.
spiral fracture
one in which the bone has been twisted apart.
spontaneous fracture
pathological fracture.
sprain fracture
the separation of a tendon from its insertion, taking with it a piece of bone. See also avulsion fracture (above).
stellate fracture
one with a central point of injury, from which radiate numerous fissures.
stress fracture
fracture produced by the stress created by the pull of muscles without the intervention of trauma or extreme weight-bearing.
trabecular fracture
there is no discontinuity of the bone as a whole but microscopic examination shows fractured trabeculae.
transverse fracture
one at right angles to the axis of the bone.
trophic fracture
one due to a nutritional (trophic) disturbance.
References in periodicals archive ?
The cleared indication for use is for the treatment of pathological fractures of the vertebral body due to osteoporosis using a kyphoplasty procedure.
Aredia (pamidronate disodium for injection) is the first medical therapy proven to reduce pathological fractures and other skeletal complications in patients with multiple myeloma.
ABS) has changed the name of its proprietary Symphony(TM) VR Radiopaque Bone Cement to Concert(R) Spine VR Radiopaque Bone Cement for the fixation of pathological fractures of the vertebral body using vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty procedures.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today to market ABS's Symphony(TM) VR Radiopaque Bone Cement for the fixation of pathological fractures of the vertebral body using vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty procedures.
The authors recommend that IM devices should be used in more distally based STFs and in pathological fractures.
This study shows that ZOMETA significantly reduces and delays these complications -- including pathological fractures, spinal cord compression and the need for radiation.
Over the 15-month evaluation period of this trial, a lower proportion of patients receiving ZOMETA experienced a skeletal related event (SRE), such as radiation to bone, pathological fractures, and spinal cord compression compared to those receiving placebo.
Clinical manifestations of Paget's disease range from no symptoms to severe morbidity due to bone pain, bone deformity, pathological fractures, and neurological and other complications.
In June this year, Vertaplex HV became the first PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) to receive 510(k) clearance to fix pathological fractures of the sacral vertebral body or ala using either sacral vertebroplasty or sacroplasty.
Group 2 set for vertebroplasty - a set of enabling transdermal, przeznasadowa supplement the loss of bone cement shaft vertebrae in cases of pathological fractures.
Once it spreads, it can cause a number of ailments, including bone pain and pathological fractures.
Post-theraupetic whole body scan (WBS) showed diffuse 1-131 uptake on the parietal region of the skull, thyroid bed at three different focus, left anterior cervical region, left hemipelvis (iliac bone), and the right femur neck (Figure 3) Subsequently, 30 Gy conventional radiotherapy1250 cGy per 12 fractions) was performed to C2-C4 vertabrae to prevent pathological fractures.

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