pathogen-associated molecular patterns

pathogen-associated molecular patterns

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PAMP

Any of several molecular sequences associated with or found in many different disease-causing microorganisms to which the innate immune system reacts without initiating an antigen-antibody response. Examples of pathogen-associated molecular patterns are 1. bacterial DNA,2. lipoteichoic acids found in the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria, 3. lipopolysaccharides found in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, and4. sugars like glucans or mannose, found in fungi or bacteria, respectively, but not in mammalian cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
Naturally occurring cell-wall polysaccharides, beta-glucans, are examples of such conserved non-self-molecules collectively referred to as microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or PAMPs).
It relies on the detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), molecular hallmarks of infection which are shared amongst different pathogens but are absent from healthy host cells.
TLRs 1,2,4,5,6 and 11 are located on the plasma membrane of cells of the innate immune system and epithelial cells and recognise a range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns found on the cell-wall of bacteria, including lipopeptides (TLRs1 and 6), lipoteichoic acids and lipoproteins (TLR2), lipopolysaccharides (TLR4), and bacterial flagellin (TLR5), while TLR11 interacts with less well-defined ligands on uropathogenic bacteria; (3) the remaining TLRs are located cytoplasmically in endosomes where they interact with viral double-stranded (TLR3) and singlestranded RNA (TLRs7 and 8), and with bacterial and viral DNA via interactions with so-called unmethylated CpG sites (TLR9), which are rarely encountered on the human genome.