Polyandrous behavior, which explains the occurrence of multiple paternities, is attributed to different factors, such as indirect genetic benefits to the offspring, increasing in genetic variability (Pearse et al., 2001, 2006), a reduction in the likelihood of inbreeding and a reduction of costs resulting from reproductive failure due to genetic incompatibility (Stockley et al., 1993).
Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the kinship degree among offspring in the same litter in populations found both in captivity and the wild to investigate the occurrence of multiple paternities in these two environments and compare the findings, using microsatellite markers.
The probability of genetic identity (I) and exclusion of paternities (Q) was calculated based on Paetkau et al.
Using the simple allele count method (Myers & Zamudio, 2004), which presupposes Mendelian distribution of the alleles in the offspring, the presence of five alleles per locus among the hatchlings in each nest is considered indicative of multiple paternities if no maternal allele is known (two maternal alleles, two alleles from one male and one allele from a second male).
In contrast, the probability of exclusion of paternities was high (captivity: CQ = 0.9999; wild: CQ = 0.9999), indicating 99.99% probability of the efficient detection of multiple paternities using these loci (Table 2).