Several studies established causal relationship between passive smoking and obstructive lung disease,33-35 some also documented decline in pulmonary functions in relation to passive smoke
As evident from figure 2, there is a significant association between participants' level of education and their reporting of having knowledge regarding passive smoke
Childhood passive smoke
exposure was overall a much stronger risk factor for COPD and COPD-related symptoms than adulthood passive smoke
exposure in this study population.
Reducing costs incurred by the government in caring for people admitted to local hospitals for conditions caused by passive smoke
exposure, and a reduction in costs of employer liability insurance, are some of the benefits experienced by countries enforcing smoke-free laws.
'During her pregnancy she asked her managers to allow her to work in areas which protected her unborn baby from the dangers of passive smoke
They make no allowances for the degree of exposure we may have to passive smoke
The results pose questions for future studies: Does passive smoke
directly attack and deplete antioxidant micronutrients?
Using data from 1,590 men and women of all ages, researchers found that smokers as well as nonsmokers exposed to passive smoke
at home had lower levels of certain carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and cryptoxanthin) than nonsmokers in smokefree homes.
is additionally implicated in many thousands of deaths a year.
There is preliminary evidence of changes in the cardiovascular system of children exposed to passive smoke
. Changes in the lipoproteins and oxygen transport in the blood of adolescents has also been shown.
This latest study shows that babies exposed only to passive smoke
after birth are twice as likely to die from SIDS than infants never exposed.
Janerich of Yale University and his co-workers reported finding just the opposite in 1990 -- no link to a spouse's smoking and a small, increased cancer risk from exposure to parental smoking -- that study showed "no clear doseresponse relationship." By contrast, Fontham's group did observe a pronounced dose-response relationship: Those women facing the greatest exposure to passive smoke
also incurred the greatest risk of lung cancer.