passive immunization


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Related to passive immunization: immunized, Active immunization

immunization

 [im″u-nĭ-za´shun]
the process of rendering a subject immune, or of becoming immune. Called also inoculation and vaccination. The word vaccine originally referred to the substance used to immunize against smallpox, the first immunization developed. Now, however, the term is used for any preparation used in active immunization.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has an Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice that reviews childhood immunization schedules yearly. The recommended childhood immunization schedule is reprinted in Appendix 7-1. In Canada, the Health Protection Branch Laboratory Center for Disease Control, Health Canada, National Advisory Committee on Immunization publishes a recommended childhood vaccination schedule for Canada (reprinted in Appendix 7-3). Adult immunization schedules for the United States and Canada are found in Appendices 7-2 and 7-4.
active immunization stimulation with a specific antigen to promote antibody formation in the body. The antigenic substance may be in one of four forms: (1) dead bacteria, as in typhoid fever immunization; (2) dead viruses, as in the Salk poliomyelitis injection; (3) live attenuated virus, e.g., smallpox vaccine and Sabin polio vaccine (taken orally); and (4) toxoids, altered forms of toxins produced by bacteria, as in immunization against tetanus and diphtheria.

Since active immunization induces the body to produce its own antibodies and to go on producing them, protection against disease will last several years, in some cases for life.

Active immunization is not without risks, although research supports the efficacy of immunization programs as a measure to reduce the incidence of infectious disease. Paradoxically, the more successful an immunization program and the higher the immunization rate, the more likely it becomes that a vaccine will cause more illness and injury than its target disease. Thus the risk of disease is less threatening than the risk of an adverse reaction to the vaccine that will prevent it.

In an effort to immunize larger numbers of children against preventable infectious diseases public health officials and health care professionals in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam now enforce laws requiring children to be immunized before they enter school. Those children who come to school with incomplete or nonexistent records of immunizations are refused admittance until they are immunized.

Circumstances that require postponement of immunization include acute febrile illness, immunologic deficiency, pregnancy, immunosuppressive therapy, and administration of gamma globulin, plasma, or whole blood transfusion 6 to 8 weeks prior to the scheduled immunization.

Because of their potential for triggering anaphylaxis in hypersensitive persons, all immunizing agents should be given with caution and only after a health history has been completed on the patient. Emergency equipment and drugs should be readily at hand in all clinics and other facilities where immunizing agents are administered.
passive immunization transient immunization produced by the introduction into the system of pre-formed antibody or specifically sensitized lymphoid cells. The person immunized is protected only as long as these antibodies remain in his blood and are active—usually from 4 to 6 weeks.

pas·sive im·mu·ni·za·tion

the production of passive immunity.

Passive immunization

Treatment that provides immunity through the transfer of antibodies obtained from an immune individual.
Mentioned in: Rabies

immunization

the process of rendering a subject immune, or of becoming immune. See also vaccination.

active immunization
stimulation with a specific antigen to promote an immune response. In the context of infectious diseases, the antigenic substances may include: (1) inactivated bacteria, as in botulism immunization; (2) inactivated viruses, as in the canine parvovirus vaccination; (3) live attenuated viruses, e.g. rabies virus, and (4) toxoids, chemically treated toxins produced by bacteria, as in immunization against tetanus and pasteurellosis. Any of a vast number of foreign substances may induce an active immune response.
Since active immunization induces the body to produce its own antibodies and specifically reactive cells and to go on producing them, protection against disease will last several years, in some cases for life.
antihormone immunization
immunization against hormones, e.g. against androstenedione for the stimulation of ovulation in ewes, is now a commercial reality and promises to be a significant management tool in intensive animal production. See also immunological contraception.
deliberate immunization
the administration of an immunogen, usually by injection but sometimes orally or by inhalation, for the purpose of producing immunity.
natural immunization
stimulation of the immune system through exposure to antigens that have not been deliberately administered.
passive immunization
transient immunization produced by the introduction into the system of pre-formed antibody or specifically reactive lymphoid cells. The animal immunized is protected only as long as these antibodies or cells remain in the blood and are active—usually from 4 to 6 weeks. The immunity may be natural, as in the transfer of maternal antibody to offspring, or artificial, passive immunity following inoculation of antibodies or immune cells.

passive

neither spontaneous on the part of the patient, nor active response by the patient, the stimulus having been applied externally.

passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) test
see passive cutaneous anaphylaxis.
passive diffusion
passage of electrolytes to all parts of a solution, including through a permeable membrane. Plays some part in intestinal absorption.
passive hemagglutination test
passive immunization
see passive immunization.
passive neonatal immunity
see passive immunity.
passive transfer
see passive diffusion (above).
passive venous congestion
noninflammatory distention of vessels with blood. Caused by simple accumulation resulting from obstruction or failure of the heart to eject the full volume of blood returned to it.
References in periodicals archive ?
The effective time through intravenous route and intra muscular route for passive immunization against PM were determined as explained later.
To increase the level of protective antibody titers ([greater than or equal to]10 IU/L), both active and passive immunization are required.
RESULTS: In passive immunization trials, the orally administered antibodies conferred dose-dependent protection against infection with each of the homologous strains of Salmonella.
Fetal-neonatal passive immunization against Haemophilus influenzae, type b.
Chicken egg yolk has been recognized as an inexpensive alternative antibody source, and passive immunization with egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) has shown therapeutic value against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, rotavirus, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Streptococcus mutans, and Helicobacter pylori.
The positive results of cross-protection studies in hamster models should be interpreted cautiously, since experimental infection in those studies would tend to favor unusually brisk immune responses that go well beyond eliciting NAb and likely include potent cell-mediated or innate immune responses that cannot be mimicked with passive immunization (12).
If a contraindication to using a tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine exists in a person who has not completed tetanus primary immunization and other than a clean, minor wound is sustained, only passive immunization with TIG (Human) should be given.
E-glycoprotein antibodies develop during human WNV infection (8), and passive immunization of mice with E-glycoprotein antiserum protects against WNV infection and death (7,8).
Numerous obstacles to the development of a safe and effective RSV vaccine have shifted the focus of research and development to passive immunization.
patents covering active and passive immunization against Clostridium difficile disease and has published more than 25 papers in the areas of infectious diseases, vaccine development, active and passive immunization and vaccine-induced protection.
The anti-(fibronectin binding site) antibodies, peptides and epitopes that give rise to antibodies that block the binding of fibronectin binding proteins to fibronectin, and DNA segments encoding these proteins and are of use in various screening, diagnostic and therapeutic applications including active and passive immunization and methods for the prevention of streptococcal and staphylococcal colonization in animals or humans.