passive immunization

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Related to passive immunization: immunized, Active immunization


the process of rendering a subject immune, or of becoming immune. Called also inoculation and vaccination. The word vaccine originally referred to the substance used to immunize against smallpox, the first immunization developed. Now, however, the term is used for any preparation used in active immunization.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has an Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice that reviews childhood immunization schedules yearly. The recommended childhood immunization schedule is reprinted in Appendix 7-1. In Canada, the Health Protection Branch Laboratory Center for Disease Control, Health Canada, National Advisory Committee on Immunization publishes a recommended childhood vaccination schedule for Canada (reprinted in Appendix 7-3). Adult immunization schedules for the United States and Canada are found in Appendices 7-2 and 7-4.
active immunization stimulation with a specific antigen to promote antibody formation in the body. The antigenic substance may be in one of four forms: (1) dead bacteria, as in typhoid fever immunization; (2) dead viruses, as in the Salk poliomyelitis injection; (3) live attenuated virus, e.g., smallpox vaccine and Sabin polio vaccine (taken orally); and (4) toxoids, altered forms of toxins produced by bacteria, as in immunization against tetanus and diphtheria.

Since active immunization induces the body to produce its own antibodies and to go on producing them, protection against disease will last several years, in some cases for life.

Active immunization is not without risks, although research supports the efficacy of immunization programs as a measure to reduce the incidence of infectious disease. Paradoxically, the more successful an immunization program and the higher the immunization rate, the more likely it becomes that a vaccine will cause more illness and injury than its target disease. Thus the risk of disease is less threatening than the risk of an adverse reaction to the vaccine that will prevent it.

In an effort to immunize larger numbers of children against preventable infectious diseases public health officials and health care professionals in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam now enforce laws requiring children to be immunized before they enter school. Those children who come to school with incomplete or nonexistent records of immunizations are refused admittance until they are immunized.

Circumstances that require postponement of immunization include acute febrile illness, immunologic deficiency, pregnancy, immunosuppressive therapy, and administration of gamma globulin, plasma, or whole blood transfusion 6 to 8 weeks prior to the scheduled immunization.

Because of their potential for triggering anaphylaxis in hypersensitive persons, all immunizing agents should be given with caution and only after a health history has been completed on the patient. Emergency equipment and drugs should be readily at hand in all clinics and other facilities where immunizing agents are administered.
passive immunization transient immunization produced by the introduction into the system of pre-formed antibody or specifically sensitized lymphoid cells. The person immunized is protected only as long as these antibodies remain in his blood and are active—usually from 4 to 6 weeks.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

pas·sive im·mu·ni·za·tion

the production of passive immunity.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

Passive immunization

Treatment that provides immunity through the transfer of antibodies obtained from an immune individual.
Mentioned in: Rabies
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Active and passive immunization against bivalent flagellin (a, b), flagellin a (c, d), and flagellin b (e, f).
Passive immunization: Passive immunization is short lived because host does not respond to immunization and protection lasts only as long as injected antibody persists.
We also optimized the effective time period for passive immunization against HS.
(6), passive immunization with immunoglobulin (monthly for four doses) was given at the time of aggressive chemotherapy, and subsequently these patients were actively immunized with vaccine (40 mcg, 1-2-12 months) from the third month of maintenance therapy.
* It can create "passive immunization" in areas of poor sanitation and hygiene when others come in contact with the feces of recently immunized children.
3:45pm-4:30pm Active and Passive Immunization Strategies:
Medical treatment for children with HIV must focus on antiretroviral therapy against bacterial infections, and active and passive immunization against viral infections.
This is known as passive immunization. In active immunization, people are given killed or deactivated microbes, which then stimulate the person's own immune system to produce protective antibodies.
Immunoprecipitation and virus neutralization assays demonstrate qualitative differences in the protective antibody responses to an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine and passive immunization with immune globulin.
This strategy -- known as passive immunization -- has been used successfully in reducing perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus.
Passive immunization involves giving a vaccine that contains antibodies to the disease causing virus or bacteria.
Passive immunization does have its disadvantages, Santosham says.

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