A loss of PNN and parvalbumin
immunoreactivity is also observed in models of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
This group of markers (parvalbumin
, claudin 7 and 8, and CD117) has been shown to be positive in a high percentage of chromophobe RCCs and oncocytomas but is typically negative in other types of RCC.
In the first study, the researchers focused on neurons in mice that produce a protein called parvalbumin
(PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR) are characteristic CBP of different subpopulations of interneurons.
Each major type of renal epithelial neoplasm is thought to be derived from a specific nephron segment, and thus, is expected to display an immunoprofile akin to that of the parental nephron segment, for examples, the RCC marker (17) and CD10 for proximal tubules (22) and the corresponding clear cell and papillary RCCs; parvalbumin
, (16,23,24) S100A, (25-(27) claudins, (28) kidney-specific cadherin for distal portion of the nephron, (29,30) and the corresponding chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma; and high-molecular-weight cytokeratins for the collecting duct and the corresponding collecting duct RCC.
In fish allergy the protein responsible is parvalbumin
and in fruit it is lipid transfer protein (LTP).
Volk, "Cortical parvalbumin
interneurons and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia," Trends in Neurosciences, vol.
Chiquet-Ehrismann, "'Perineuronal nets' around cortical interneurons expressing parvalbumin
are rich in tenascin," Neuroscience Letters, vol.
Siegle et al., "A critical role for NMDA receptors in parvalbumin
interneurons for gamma rhythm induction and behavior," Molecular Psychiatry, vol.
neurons and gamma rhythms enhance cortical circuit performance," Nature, vol.
In some amacrine cells GABA colocalizes with other neurotransmitters, serotonin, acetylcholine , and dopamine  or neuropeptides such as substance P , parvalbumin
(PV), SOM, VIP, and NPY [99, 100].
Siegel, "Knockout of NMDA receptors in parvalbumin
interneurons recreates autism-like phenotypes," Autism Research, vol.