Disability: "An umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions
. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction
is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations." (2) Article 1 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities defines persons with disabilities as including: "those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others."
The study revealed that there was no significant relationship between participation restriction
and self-stigma, disability scores and self-stigma, participation restriction
and perceived stigma, negative attitudes from community members and perceived stigma in affected people.
The restriction domain is comprised of 10 items measuring participation restriction
in work, leisure, and social activities as a result of health problems.
A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study of adults ages 18 years and older reported that having multiple chronic conditions was associated with poorer outcomes for important life domains (social participation restriction
, serious psychological distress, and work disability).
Having one or more chronic conditions was associated with significant and progressively higher prevalences of social participation restriction
, serious psychological distress, and work limitations.
Social participation restriction
among US adults with arthritis: A population-based study using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF).
For the "participation restriction
" variable, values ranged from 0 to 46, with a mean of 17.34 (SD = 12.64).
experience a participation restriction
in the context of the federal transportation network.
One end of the continuum indicates intact or neutral functioning; the other indicates completely compromised function or disability (e.g., impairment, activity limitation [formerly referred to as disability (WHO, 1980)], or participation restriction
[formerly referred to as handicap (WHO, 1980)]).
Thus a higher degree of nerve impairment, disability, activity limitation and participation restriction
may be expected as compared with studies of unselected leprosy patients.
Thus he or she may experience participation restriction
. Such contextual issues as stigma and impaired social support networks can exacerbate participation restrictions
by limiting access to resources and opportunities.
The 10 FRI items fall within four constructs--pain, sleep, work, and daily activity--that fit within the three domains of WHO-ICF: 1) Activity limitations daily activity with six items--personal care, travel, recreation, lifting, walking and standing; 2) Impairment with three items and two constructs of pain and sleep--pain frequency, pain intensity and sleep; and 3) Participation restriction
with one construct and item--work.