Based on numerous iterations and test cycles of the categories of drivers' activities through participant observation
and app testing, the researchers finally settled on the following nine measurement categories: Drive, Wait, Load, Unload, Break, Info (administration), Walk, Handle, and Service (including fueling) (Sternberg, Prockl, and Holmstrom 2014).
Because it involved not merely observing but taking part in the activities of the trainers and attendees, participant observation
provided an insider's view into the operation of, and reception to, the trainings.
Taylor is cautious when using data from his participant observation
, referring to it as "anecdotes.
To a large extent, this has been facilitated by the research technique of participant observation
defies current neoliberal thinking in her theories, methods and results, working from qualitative interviews and participant observation
Observing, describing, and analyzing the apparent exoticism and incomprehensibility of something like financial exchanges, for instance, may seem to require a re-thinking of the methodology of participant observation
in rural Northern Tanzania of sexual culture found both permissive and restrictive norms and expectations for young people.
To some extent, participant observation
can be thought of as a self-monitoring process in which you carefully observe and collect data on your personal activities" (p.
McKechnie discusses the practicalities of implementing participant observation
in storytime programs for very young children.
Contributors also model a broad range of methods for studying online communication, including interviews, participant observation
, content analysis, textual analysis, and survey research.
They employed qualitative methods of participant observation
and ethnographic interviews, and found that student participation ranged from highly active to nonexistent across the observation planning meetings.
Becker and Geer wrote in 1957, "The point is that things can be reported in an interview through such a distorting lens, and the interviewer may have no way of knowing what is fact and what is distortion of this kind; participant observation
makes it possible to check such points" (100; see also I.