In Brustle (Case C-34/10) the CJEU held that a 'human embryo' included "non-fertilised human ovum whose division and further development have been stimulated by parthenogenesis" as they were "capable of commencing the process of development of a human being just as an embryo created by fertilisation of an ovum can do so." The CJEU noted that whereas in Brustle, written observations presented to the Court stated that parthenotes
did have the capacity to develop into a human being, none of the interested parties (which included a number of observations from Member States) in this case disputed that this was not correct according to current scientific knowledge.
However further investigation is required to determine the maximum duration for the storage of frozen PZM3 that is useful for culturing parthenote
and cloned porcine embryos at least for up to 5 months.
The first ESC lines from parthenotes
were developed from mice in 1983 (21).
On 17 July 2014, Advocate General Cruz Villalon delivered his Opinion concluding that unfertilised human ova whose division and further development have been stimulated by parthenogenesis should be excluded from the term "human embryos" in Article 6(2)(c) of Directive 98/44/EC on the Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions (the "Directive"), as long as those parthenotes
are not capable of developing into a human being and have not been genetically manipulated to acquire such a capacity (Case C-364/13).
The quality of parthenotes
, the numbers of total cell and ICM, however, were not positively influenced in the slightly aged oocytes.
The desire to create cell lines that behave like ES cells without destroying viable embryos has spurred ideas for embryo-like entities that cannot mature: developmentally crippled embryos, parthenotes
, and--if it is possible to identify them reliably--embryos analogous to brain-dead adults.
were divided into six groups including two control groups grown under 5% or 20% [O.sub.2], and four treatment groups grown under 20% [O.sub.2].
Although the initial stages of development of a parthenote
is similar to that of fertilised ova, they are not identical at any stage.
Fetal bovine serum influences apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression in porcine parthenotes
developing in vitro.
Embryo quality and production efficiency of porcine parthenotes
is improved by phytohemagglutinin.
Improvement of cloned embryos development by co-culturing with parthenotes
: a possible role of exosomes/microvesicles for embryos paracrine communication.
 In a ruling on 18 December 2014,  the Court of Justice of the EU clarified the status of embryos created through parthenogenesis (having only one set of DNA and unable to develop into human beings) by confirming that these parthenotes
are excluded from the definition of a 'human embryo' as contained in Directive 98/44/ EC of 6 July 1999 of the European Parliament and Council on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions, and are hence patentable.