paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea


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Related to paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea: orthopnea, sleep apnea, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

dyspnea

 [disp-ne´ah]
breathlessness or shorthess of breath; labored or difficult breathing. It is a sign of a variety of disorders and is primarily an indication of inadequate ventilation or of insufficient amounts of oxygen in the circulating blood. adj., adj dyspne´ic.

Dyspnea can be symptomatic of a variety of disorders, both acute and chronic. Acute conditions include acute infections and inflammations of the respiratory tract, obstruction by an inhaled foreign object, anaphylactic swelling of the tracheal and bronchial mucosa, and traumatic injury to the chest. Chronic disorders usually fall into the category of chronic airflow limitation, or are associated with pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure. A fat embolism resulting from the release of fat particles from bone marrow at the time of a fracture of a long bone also can cause dyspnea.


Patient Care. The dyspneic patient has some degree of difficulty in meeting the basic physiologic need for adequate levels of oxygen in the blood and the transportation of that oxygen to all cells of the body. Whatever the cause of dyspnea, the plan of care begins with treating the patient and providing adequate oxygenation.

A thorough assessment of the patient's condition is necessary in order to ascertain the extent of the problem and the urgency of the need. A current and past history are obtained and a physical examination completed as soon as possible. If the patient is acutely short of breath, corrective measures should be instituted promptly. In cases of acute respiratory distress, it may be necessary to intubate the patient, begin oxygen therapy, and obtain laboratory arterial blood gas data. If there is airway obstruction, clearing the airway is necessary, or a tracheotomy may be performed.

If the patient is suffering from an acute attack of dyspnea and has a history of chronic airflow limitation, certain nursing measures can help relieve anxiety and improve ventilation. The patient should respond favorably to a calm, reassuring manner and an explanation of what is being done to relieve the shortness of breath. High Fowler's position or orthopneic position with the arms resting on pillows on an overbed table will help improve chest expansion. Helping the patient relax muscles not needed for breathing conserves oxygen and promotes rest. If abdominal distention, ascites, or a massive tumor interferes with chest expansion and produces dyspnea, having the patient lie on one side and supporting the abdomen with pillows may provide some relief.

Once dyspneic patients are comfortable and less apprehensive, they may need instruction in prolonged, controlled exhalation. If they already know how to do pursed-lip breathing (inhaling slowly through the nose and exhaling slowly through pursed lips), they may need to be reminded of it and encouraged to use it to improve breathing.

Special observations and methods of assessment of a patient who has dyspnea include: auscultation of the chest for abnormal breath and voice sounds, lung aeration, rales, and rhonchi; inspection of the chest for respiratory rate and rhythm and for symmetrical expansion; inspection of the skin, lips, and nail beds for cyanosis; and percussion of the chest for abnormal resonance. Results of arterial blood gas analyses should be monitored and the patient observed for fatigability when engaged in various levels of activity.
exertional dyspnea dyspnea provoked by physical effort or exertion.
functional dyspnea respiratory distress not associated with organic disease and unrelated to exertion; often associated with anxiety states.
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea respiratory distress related to posture (especially reclining at night), usually attributed to congestive heart failure with pulmonary edema.

par·ox·ys·mal noc·tur·nal dysp·ne·a (PND),

acute dyspnea appearing suddenly at night, usually waking the patient from sleep; caused by pulmonary congestion with or without pulmonary edema that results from left-sided heart failure following mobilization of fluid from dependent areas after lying down.

paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)

a disorder characterized by sudden attacks of respiratory distress that awaken the person, usually after several hours of sleep in a reclining position. This occurs because of increased fluid central circulation with reclining position. It is most commonly caused by pulmonary edema resulting from congestive heart failure. The attacks are often accompanied by coughing, a feeling of suffocation, cold sweat, and tachycardia with a gallop rhythm. Sleeping with the head propped up on pillows may prevent PND, but treatment of the underlying cause is required to prevent fluid from accumulating in the lungs. Also called nocturnal paroxysmal dyspnea. See also dyspnea.

paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

Sleep disorders Dyspnea several hrs after a Pt with severe and decompensated CHF falls asleep, due to fluid accumulation in lungs, usually relieved by a short period of sitting up; PND may be sudden and awaken the sleeper

par·ox·ys·mal noc·tur·nal dysp·ne·a

(PND) (par'ok-siz'măl nok-tŭr'năl disp'nē-ă)
Acute shortness of breath that appears suddenly at night, usually waking the patient after an hour or two of sleep; caused by pulmonary congestion that results from left-sided heart failure.

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)

A form of dyspnea characterized by the patient's waking from sleep unable to breathe.
Mentioned in: Shortness of Breath
References in periodicals archive ?
a) BNP group Control group Characteristics (n = 225) (n = 227) Mean age (SD), years 70 (16) 71 (15) Women 93 (41) 97 (43) Mean glomerular filtration rate (SD), 65 (31) 63 (35) mL/min Symptoms Dyspnea (b) Slight hill 32 (14) 33 (15) Level ground 125 (56) 132 (58) At rest 66 (29) 58 (26) Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea 79 (35) 87 (38) Nycturia 60 (27) 76 (33) Chest pain 76 (34) 78 (34) Coughing 101 (45) 123 (54) Expectoration 72 (32) 87 (38) Fever 59 (26) 50 (22) Final discharge diagnosis (c) Acute HF 101 (45) 116 (51) Exacerbated COPD/asthma 51 (23) 25 (11) Pulmonary embolism 10 (4) 11 (5) Pneumonia 32 (14) 30 (13) Anxiety disorder 7 (3) 9 (4) Other disease (d) 26 (12) 33 (15) Unknown cause 8 (4) 12 (5) (a) Values are expressed as n (%) unless otherwise indicated.
Retrospective history revealed one week of progressive dyspnea, orthopnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea with intermittent presyncope.
He denied calf pain, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND), syncope, and chest pain.

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