parotid

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parotid

 [pah-rot´id]
near the ear.
parotid glands the largest of the three main pairs of salivary glands, located on either side of the face, just below and in front of the ears. From each gland a duct, the parotid duct (sometimes called Stensen's duct), runs forward across the cheek and opens on the inside surface of the cheek opposite the second molar of the upper jaw.

The parotid glands are made up of groups of cells clustered around a globular cavity, resembling a bunch of grapes. Small ducts draining each cavity join the ducts of neighboring cavities to form large ducts, which in turn join the parotid duct.

From the system of ducts flows the thin, watery secretion of the parotid glands called saliva, which plays an important role in the process of digestion. As food is chewed the saliva with which it is mixed and moistened makes it possible for the food to be reduced to a substance that can be swallowed.

Controlled by the autonomic nervous system, the secretion of the salivary glands begins whenever the sensory nerves of the mouth, or in some cases nerves located elsewhere in the body, are stimulated.

Salivation may be an involuntary reflex, as when food or even inedible material placed in the mouth starts the flow of the secretion from the glands, or it may be a conditioned reflex, as when the flow is started by the sight, smell, or thought of food.
Disorders of the Parotid Glands. The most common disease affecting the parotid glands is mumps, or epidemic parotitis.

Swelling and tenderness may also result from infections caused by other viruses or bacteria in the glands. Less often, these symptoms indicate a blockage of a duct by either infection or a calculus, in which case the swelling is likely to fluctuate, especially at mealtimes. Though stubborn or recurring cases sometimes require surgery, stones often can be removed by massage. For infections, antibiotics and warm compresses are the usual treatment.

Occasionally additional glandular masses grow in or near a parotid gland. The majority of such growths are mixed tumors, so called because they contain cartilage or other material as well as the usual glandular material. Usually they are benign; occasionally they may be malignant and require surgery.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

pa·rot·id

(pă-rot'id),
Situated near the ear; denoting several structures in this neighborhood. Usually refers to the parotid salivary gland.
[G. parōtis (parōtid-), the gland beside the ear, fr. para, beside, + ous (ōt-), ear]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

parotid

(pə-rŏt′ĭd)
n.
A parotid gland.
adj.
1. Situated near the ear: the parotid region of the face.
2. Of or relating to a parotid gland.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

parotid

adjective Referring to the parotid (gland).
 
noun  Parotid gland; glandula parotidea [NA6].
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

pa·rot·id

(pă-rot'id)
Situated near the ear; denoting several structures in this neighborhood. Usually refers to the parotid salivary gland.
[G. parōtis (parōtid-), the gland beside the ear, fr. para, beside, + ous (ōt-), ear]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

pa·rot·id

(pă-rot'id)
Situated near the ear; denoting several structures in this area.
[G. parōtis (parōtid-), the gland beside the ear, fr. para, beside, + ous (ōt-), ear]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
The dose received by the parotid glands (PG) has been proven as having predictive value of xerostomia, doses between 26-39 Gy being correlated to a significant decrease in salivary flow and doses between 60-70 Gy were associated with morphological changes associated with toxic effects irreversibility.
Implementation of the standard technique of IMRT in the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer has led to better conformity of the target volume and a reduced dose received by radiosensitive organs and especially by the parotid glands [3, 4].
The largest of these salivary glands of human body is parotid gland, the gland around the ear (para-around, otic-ear).
Appearance of parotid duct anlage was observed at 14-18mms CRL Stage as an epithelial invagination in oral epithelium (Merida Velasco 1991).
Bilateral multiple parotid calculi are rare entity.
Key words: Sialolithiasis, parotid, bilateral, intraparenchymal, calculi
Herein, we present a three-year-old girl, who was previously vaccinated against mumps infection, admitted with bilateral parotid swelling, dactylitis and serum immunoglobulin M positivity for mumps infection and diagnosed to have ALL with bilateral persistent parotid involvement, inconsistent with mumps infection.
Daha once kabakulak aisi yapilmiS olan Cic yawdaki kiz hasta iki tarafli parotid bezinde iSlik ve daktilit nedeniyle bavurdugunda kabakulak IgM pozitiflig saptanmi ve ileri incelemesinde bilateral parotid infiltrasyonunun eSlik ettig ALL tanisi konulmutur.
(1) In this article, we report a case of MLEL of the parotid that developed in an Italian-American woman whose serology was positive for EBV antibodies.
A white 54-year-old woman of Italian descent was referred to us for evaluation of a slowly enlarging, painless, nontender left parotid mass of 5 months' duration.
It is thought to occur due to the re-growth of the secreto-motor parasympathetic fibers of the auriculotemporal nerve (which supplies the parotids) into the distal cut ends of the sympathetic fibers that supply the sweat glands & blood vessels of the skin.
The presence of bilateral painless parotid gland swelling with no history or evidence of infection excludes acute parotitis.