parotid

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parotid

 [pah-rot´id]
near the ear.
parotid glands the largest of the three main pairs of salivary glands, located on either side of the face, just below and in front of the ears. From each gland a duct, the parotid duct (sometimes called Stensen's duct), runs forward across the cheek and opens on the inside surface of the cheek opposite the second molar of the upper jaw.

The parotid glands are made up of groups of cells clustered around a globular cavity, resembling a bunch of grapes. Small ducts draining each cavity join the ducts of neighboring cavities to form large ducts, which in turn join the parotid duct.

From the system of ducts flows the thin, watery secretion of the parotid glands called saliva, which plays an important role in the process of digestion. As food is chewed the saliva with which it is mixed and moistened makes it possible for the food to be reduced to a substance that can be swallowed.

Controlled by the autonomic nervous system, the secretion of the salivary glands begins whenever the sensory nerves of the mouth, or in some cases nerves located elsewhere in the body, are stimulated.

Salivation may be an involuntary reflex, as when food or even inedible material placed in the mouth starts the flow of the secretion from the glands, or it may be a conditioned reflex, as when the flow is started by the sight, smell, or thought of food.
Disorders of the Parotid Glands. The most common disease affecting the parotid glands is mumps, or epidemic parotitis.

Swelling and tenderness may also result from infections caused by other viruses or bacteria in the glands. Less often, these symptoms indicate a blockage of a duct by either infection or a calculus, in which case the swelling is likely to fluctuate, especially at mealtimes. Though stubborn or recurring cases sometimes require surgery, stones often can be removed by massage. For infections, antibiotics and warm compresses are the usual treatment.

Occasionally additional glandular masses grow in or near a parotid gland. The majority of such growths are mixed tumors, so called because they contain cartilage or other material as well as the usual glandular material. Usually they are benign; occasionally they may be malignant and require surgery.

pa·rot·id

(pă-rot'id),
Situated near the ear; denoting several structures in this neighborhood. Usually refers to the parotid salivary gland.
[G. parōtis (parōtid-), the gland beside the ear, fr. para, beside, + ous (ōt-), ear]

parotid

/pa·rot·id/ (pah-rot´id) near the ear.

parotid

(pə-rŏt′ĭd)
n.
A parotid gland.
adj.
1. Situated near the ear: the parotid region of the face.
2. Of or relating to a parotid gland.

parotid

[pərot′id]
Etymology: Gk, para + ous, ear
near the ear.

parotid

adjective Referring to the parotid (gland).
 
noun  Parotid gland; glandula parotidea [NA6].

pa·rot·id

(pă-rot'id)
Situated near the ear; denoting several structures in this neighborhood. Usually refers to the parotid salivary gland.
[G. parōtis (parōtid-), the gland beside the ear, fr. para, beside, + ous (ōt-), ear]

pa·rot·id

(pă-rot'id)
Situated near the ear; denoting several structures in this area.
[G. parōtis (parōtid-), the gland beside the ear, fr. para, beside, + ous (ōt-), ear]

parotid

near the ear.

parotid adenitis
inflammation of the parotid gland characterized by regional swelling, pain and heat.
parotid duct
see parotid glands (below).
parotid duct transposition
a surgical procedure in which the parotid duct is redirected so that it discharges into the lower conjunctival cul-de-sac. Used in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
parotid glands
the largest of the main pairs of salivary glands, located on either side of the head, just behind the jaw and below the ears. From each gland a duct, the parotid duct, runs forward across the cheek (carnivores and small ruminants) or runs on the inside of the jaw to wind around the ventral border of the jaw to the cheek (pig, horse and ox) and opens on the inside surface of the cheek generally opposite the upper molars, the precise location depending on the species.
parotid region
the region below the ear.
References in periodicals archive ?
In order to limit saliva production, a scopolamine transdermal release system was applied to the hairless skin overlying the parotid region.
Because of severe discomfort caused by a large amount of secretion, a system of transdermal-release scopolamine was applied to the hairless skin overlying the parotid region.
Despite its exquisite rarity, this newly characterized disease entity is of considerable interest to clinicians who evaluate any masses in the parotid region.
Physical examination revealed a fixed, hard, 6 x 6-cm mass in the left parotid region along with a partial left peripheral facial paralysis.
Fewer than 100 cases have been reported in the literature, and only eight cases have been previously reported in the head and neck; two of them occurred in the parotid region, where the differential diagnosis becomes quite extensive.
Physical examination revealed the presence of an irregular, hard mass with a diameter of 5 cm in the left parotid region.
34,6,14,8] Neurilemmoma must be included in the differential diagnosis of all parotid tumors, and a froz en section should be obtained whenever an unusual intraoperative finding is encountered in the parotid region.
Because the lateral parotid region had been included in the original radiotherapy field, reirradiation would have subjected the patient to an increased risk of soft tissue and bone radio-necrosis, as well as an increased chance of a secondary malignancy.
Spongy, soft, and nontender masses were present in the parotid regions and the anterior and posterior cervical regions (figure 1).
The rationale for postoperative radiotherapy of metastatic basal cell carcinoma to the cervical and parotid regions parallels that of squamous cell carcinoma, but currently its role remains unclear.