parotid glands


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Related to parotid glands: parotitis, mumps, minor salivary glands

parotid

 [pah-rot´id]
near the ear.
parotid glands the largest of the three main pairs of salivary glands, located on either side of the face, just below and in front of the ears. From each gland a duct, the parotid duct (sometimes called Stensen's duct), runs forward across the cheek and opens on the inside surface of the cheek opposite the second molar of the upper jaw.

The parotid glands are made up of groups of cells clustered around a globular cavity, resembling a bunch of grapes. Small ducts draining each cavity join the ducts of neighboring cavities to form large ducts, which in turn join the parotid duct.

From the system of ducts flows the thin, watery secretion of the parotid glands called saliva, which plays an important role in the process of digestion. As food is chewed the saliva with which it is mixed and moistened makes it possible for the food to be reduced to a substance that can be swallowed.

Controlled by the autonomic nervous system, the secretion of the salivary glands begins whenever the sensory nerves of the mouth, or in some cases nerves located elsewhere in the body, are stimulated.

Salivation may be an involuntary reflex, as when food or even inedible material placed in the mouth starts the flow of the secretion from the glands, or it may be a conditioned reflex, as when the flow is started by the sight, smell, or thought of food.
Disorders of the Parotid Glands. The most common disease affecting the parotid glands is mumps, or epidemic parotitis.

Swelling and tenderness may also result from infections caused by other viruses or bacteria in the glands. Less often, these symptoms indicate a blockage of a duct by either infection or a calculus, in which case the swelling is likely to fluctuate, especially at mealtimes. Though stubborn or recurring cases sometimes require surgery, stones often can be removed by massage. For infections, antibiotics and warm compresses are the usual treatment.

Occasionally additional glandular masses grow in or near a parotid gland. The majority of such growths are mixed tumors, so called because they contain cartilage or other material as well as the usual glandular material. Usually they are benign; occasionally they may be malignant and require surgery.

parotid glands

The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. Each parotid is situated over the angle of the jaw, below and in front of the lower half of the ear and has a duct running forward through the cheek to open on the inside of the mouth at about the level of the upper molar teeth.
References in periodicals archive ?
Duct System of the Parotid Gland. Like the human salivary glands (Amano, 2011; Bruel et al., 2015), the duct system in rodents and rabbits is made up of intercalated ducts (ID), striated ducts (SD), excretory ducts (ED) and main excretory ducts, with these last ones leading to the main excretory duct (MED) (Fig.
All cases of sialadenitis were in submandibular gland, sialadenosis was encountered equally in submandibular and parotid gland. Non- neoplastic cysts were seen in parotid gland and minor salivary gland.
Low-grade papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the parotid gland: presentation of a case with cytological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features and pertinent literature review.
They can be solitary or multiple and represent cystic degeneration within the lymph nodes of the parotid gland. (1,2) They are slow growing in nature, typically seen in HIV-positive adults.
WT typically occurs in the lower pole of the superficial lobe of the parotid gland and rarely in the deep lobe (10%).
In parotid glands of the control rats, HEX A-specific activity was significantly lower in week 4 of the experiment compared to week 2, while in the rats with experimentally induced type 1 diabetes, it was considerably higher in week 4 compared to week 2.
Magnetic Resonance imaging is a noninvasive technique that provides morphological information of the parotid glands and differentiates focal involvement of the gland from diffuse involvement, thus allowing a correct diagnosis to be made and proper staging in case of parotid tumors (6).
However advanced imaging methods revealed the presence of lipoma in parotid gland. This case emphasizes the need for the oral health care professionals to be familiar with the clinical manifestations and radiological findings of neck swellings and differential diagnosis of lipomas with other benign and malignant lesions.
Ellis, "Polycystic disease of the parotid glands: case report of a rare entity and review of the literature," Histopathology, vol.
A comparison with magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance sialography of parotid glands," Rheumatology, vol.
The FNA for parotid gland lesions is a routine procedure.