parotid


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Related to parotid: parotid gland

parotid

 [pah-rot´id]
near the ear.
parotid glands the largest of the three main pairs of salivary glands, located on either side of the face, just below and in front of the ears. From each gland a duct, the parotid duct (sometimes called Stensen's duct), runs forward across the cheek and opens on the inside surface of the cheek opposite the second molar of the upper jaw.

The parotid glands are made up of groups of cells clustered around a globular cavity, resembling a bunch of grapes. Small ducts draining each cavity join the ducts of neighboring cavities to form large ducts, which in turn join the parotid duct.

From the system of ducts flows the thin, watery secretion of the parotid glands called saliva, which plays an important role in the process of digestion. As food is chewed the saliva with which it is mixed and moistened makes it possible for the food to be reduced to a substance that can be swallowed.

Controlled by the autonomic nervous system, the secretion of the salivary glands begins whenever the sensory nerves of the mouth, or in some cases nerves located elsewhere in the body, are stimulated.

Salivation may be an involuntary reflex, as when food or even inedible material placed in the mouth starts the flow of the secretion from the glands, or it may be a conditioned reflex, as when the flow is started by the sight, smell, or thought of food.
Disorders of the Parotid Glands. The most common disease affecting the parotid glands is mumps, or epidemic parotitis.

Swelling and tenderness may also result from infections caused by other viruses or bacteria in the glands. Less often, these symptoms indicate a blockage of a duct by either infection or a calculus, in which case the swelling is likely to fluctuate, especially at mealtimes. Though stubborn or recurring cases sometimes require surgery, stones often can be removed by massage. For infections, antibiotics and warm compresses are the usual treatment.

Occasionally additional glandular masses grow in or near a parotid gland. The majority of such growths are mixed tumors, so called because they contain cartilage or other material as well as the usual glandular material. Usually they are benign; occasionally they may be malignant and require surgery.

pa·rot·id

(pă-rot'id),
Situated near the ear; denoting several structures in this neighborhood. Usually refers to the parotid salivary gland.
[G. parōtis (parōtid-), the gland beside the ear, fr. para, beside, + ous (ōt-), ear]

parotid

/pa·rot·id/ (pah-rot´id) near the ear.

parotid

(pə-rŏt′ĭd)
n.
A parotid gland.
adj.
1. Situated near the ear: the parotid region of the face.
2. Of or relating to a parotid gland.

parotid

[pərot′id]
Etymology: Gk, para + ous, ear
near the ear.

parotid

adjective Referring to the parotid (gland).
 
noun  Parotid gland; glandula parotidea [NA6].

pa·rot·id

(pă-rot'id)
Situated near the ear; denoting several structures in this neighborhood. Usually refers to the parotid salivary gland.
[G. parōtis (parōtid-), the gland beside the ear, fr. para, beside, + ous (ōt-), ear]

pa·rot·id

(pă-rot'id)
Situated near the ear; denoting several structures in this area.
[G. parōtis (parōtid-), the gland beside the ear, fr. para, beside, + ous (ōt-), ear]

parotid

near the ear.

parotid adenitis
inflammation of the parotid gland characterized by regional swelling, pain and heat.
parotid duct
see parotid glands (below).
parotid duct transposition
a surgical procedure in which the parotid duct is redirected so that it discharges into the lower conjunctival cul-de-sac. Used in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
parotid glands
the largest of the main pairs of salivary glands, located on either side of the head, just behind the jaw and below the ears. From each gland a duct, the parotid duct, runs forward across the cheek (carnivores and small ruminants) or runs on the inside of the jaw to wind around the ventral border of the jaw to the cheek (pig, horse and ox) and opens on the inside surface of the cheek generally opposite the upper molars, the precise location depending on the species.
parotid region
the region below the ear.
References in periodicals archive ?
Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging, parotid glands, diffusion weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient
17 Tumors of salivary gland are important for pathologists as well as head and neck surgeons for the reason of high morbidity and mortality because of anatomical location and facial nerve presence which traverses the parotid gland and is likely to be damaged during surgery.
Among the major salivary glands, parotid gland was the most frequently involved site (n = 17, 70.
Theoretically, NPC cells can retrograde to the lymphatic system of the parotid gland, together with cervical lymph nodes enlargement, and then they germinate and develop as a late-stage lump; meanwhile, obstruction of the routine cervical lymphatic channels may also facilitate this process.
In addition to demographic data, we compiled information on the date of the initial visit, presenting signs, comorbidities, history of other skin cancers, the date of surgery, the type of surgery, tumor size (in its greatest dimension), surgical margin status, the presence of parotid disease (either by direct extension or intraparotid lymph node involvement), the need for a surgical flap, the need for facial nerve sacrifice, surgical complications, adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy, the date of the most recent otolaryngology follow-up, the length of follow-up, the date of death, age at the time of death, and the interval between surgery to death.
The most important differential diagnoses of painful parotid swellings include:
A 45 year old female patient presented with swelling of right parotid area.
It is thought that diabetes may lead to "changes in the composition of saliva, duct obstruction, and reduced immunity," making the patient more susceptible to infections of the parotid gland [4].
After perfusion of the animals, one submandibular and one parotid gland from the left side of each animal were postfixed in 6% formaldehyde until processing [19,20].
Among nonneoplastic lesions, congenital and acquired cystic lesions of parotid gland should be differentiated from hydatid cyst.
The parotid gland is divided into a superficial lobe (80% of the gland) and a deep lobe (20% of the gland) by the facial nerve, so complete anatomical separation does not exist.