parenteral nutrition

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by some route other than through the alimentary canal, such as by subcutaneous, intramuscular, intrasternal, or intravenous injection.
parenteral nutrition a technique for meeting a patient's nutritional needs by means of intravenous feedings; sometimes called hyperalimentation, even though it does not provide excessive amounts of nutrients. Nutrition by intravenous feeding may be either total parenteral nutrition or only supplemental.

Total parenteral nutrition provides all of the carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, electrolytes, vitamins, and minerals needed for the building of tissue, expenditure of energy, and other physiologic activities. The procedure originated as an emergency life-saving technique following surgery for severe and massive trauma of the gastrointestinal tract but has now become a relatively common means of providing bowel rest and nutrition in a variety of conditions in spite of inherent risks. Although primarily used as a short-term temporary measure until either surgical or medical treatment corrects the gastrointestinal dysfunction, it has also been used with some success as a long-term therapy for selected patients on an outpatient basis.

Parenteral nutrition may be used in the following conditions: malnutrition from such acute and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases as regional ileitis (crohn's disease) and ulcerative colitis, partial or total obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract that cannot be relieved immediately by surgery, congenital anomalies in the newborn prior to surgery, massive burns that produce critical protein loss, and other disorders in which malnutrition is a threat to the life of the patient who cannot receive nutrients via the digestive tract.

The nutrient mix is tailored to the individual needs and tolerance of the patient. There is not complete agreement among the experts as to the ideal mix, especially of amino acids. The nutrient solutions usually are prepared in clean-air rooms in the pharmacy of a hospital under aseptic conditions to avoid contamination.

Administration of the nutrients is accomplished via a central venous catheter, usually inserted in the superior vena cava. The route of administration, constant rate of flow required, and potential patient sensitivity to the elements administered, all contribute to the potential complications of parenteral nutrition.

Of the many complications that may develop, the most common are febrile reactions arising from patient intolerance to the required rate of flow, reactions due to individual sensitivity to some of the elements in the nutrient mix, and infection from contamination of either the site of insertion of the catheter or the apparatus used to administer the nutrients. Other complications that may develop include phlebitis and thrombosis of the vena cava, electrolyte imbalance, hyperglycemia, cardiac overload, dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and mechanical trauma to the heart.
Patient Care. Principles of strict aseptic technique must be followed in the daily changing of dressings and in handling the nutrient solution and the administration equipment. The catheter through which the nutrients are administered should not be used for administration of medication, blood, or any other substance that may induce clotting in the vein.
Superior vena cava administration of parenteral nutrition through a subclavian venous line. From Lammon et al., 1996.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

parenteral nutrition

IV feeding, parenteral alimentation The administration of nutrients parenterally, usually IV. See Total parenteral nutrition. Cf Forced feeding.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

pa·ren·ter·al nu·tri·tion

(PN) (pă-ren'tĕr-ăl nū-trish'ŭn)
Providing the body with nutrition intravenously.
Synonym(s): intravenous alimentation.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

parenteral nutrition

Intravenous feeding. This is required when the normal (enteral) route cannot be used. Early attempts at intravenous feeding via peripheral veins invariably led to severe THROMBOPHLEBITIS within a matter of hours because of the strong sugar solutions used. A central venous cannula had therefore to be used. Developments in design of cannulas and new feeding solutions, with calorie-rich lipids in place of strong sugar concentrations, amino acids and weaker carbohydrates may, it is hoped, allow safe peripheral vein feeding.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

Parenteral nutrition

Nutrition supplied intravenously, thus bypassing the patient's digestive tract entirely.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

pa·ren·ter·al nu·tri·tion

(PN) (pă-ren'tĕr-ăl nū-trish'ŭn)
Providing the body with nutrition intravenously.
Synonym(s): intravenous alimentation.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012

Patient discussion about parenteral nutrition

Q. why is it that some women lack parental nutrition?

A. Do you mean breastfeeding? Some women have problem with their nipples, in rare cases the breast tissue isn't developed enough. Sometimes breast surgeries damage the milk ducts. Psychological factors also play a role.

More discussions about parenteral nutrition
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References in periodicals archive ?
Nutrient type for MEA parenteral nutrition market includes single amino dose acid, trace elements, vitamins & minerals, carbohydrates, and parenteral lipid emulsions.
Over 200,000 nosocomial bloodstream infections are reported annually in the United States and approximately 35% of those are associated with central venous access devices, such as those used to deliver parenteral nutrition. [15] Mortality rates from catheter sepsis reach 15% in many cases.
Iyer, "The role of phytosterols in the pathogenesis of liver complications of pediatric parenteral nutrition," Nutrition, vol.
Simple Pearson's correlation was used for the study of the possible association and interrelationships between first tooth eruption and factors that might have an influence on teething (sex, gestational age, birth weight neonatal sepsis, history of oral intubation, use of total parenteral nutrition).
Enteral and parenteral nutrition has previously been described (13,14) as a risk factor associated with Leuconostoc-infections, although no microbiologic evidence was provided in any of the studies.
Glucose reponse to abrupt initiation and discontinuation of total parenteral nutrition. J Parenteral Enteral Nutr 1993; 17: 64-7.
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), also known as parenteral nutrition (PN) is a form of nutritional support given via the bloodstream, with an IV pump.
Both doctors and patients' families admitted that the long stay in hospital required to administer the parenteral nutrition adversely affected the quality of life for patients and their families.
A multivariate analysis showed that independent risk factors included recent bone marrow transplant, receipt of total parenteral nutrition, receipt of infusion therapy outside the home (e.g., in a clinic or physician's office), use of a multilumen catheter, and having had a previous BSI (9).