parental gamete

parental gamete

a gamete that has a genotype identical to one of the HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES in the original diploid cell. see GENETIC LINKAGE.
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It's generally taken for granted that all cells in an organism share identical chromosomal DNA sequences, since they originated from a single cell zygote fused of parental gametes which undergoes rounds of cell division and differentiation to form what is eventually the mature organism.
What really increases the defects, or whether these defects are transferred through parental gametes to the offspring or whether suboptimal in vitro conditions cause permanent changes in gametes or embryos that will influence the future life of IVF babies are not clearly known yet.
Shull (1952) defined the term heterosis as "the interpretation of increased vigor, size, fruitfulness, speed of development, resistance to disease and to insect pests, or to climatic rigors of any kind, manifested by crossbred organisms as compared with corresponding inbreds, as the specific results of unlikeness in the constitutions of the uniting parental gametes." This definition, however, is often interpreted as not implying a genetic basis for heterosis, because the definition basically describes the phenotype that results from crossing two different inbred lines (Lamkey & Edwards 1998).
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