parasympathetic nerve


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par·a·sym·pa·thet·ic nerve

one of the nerves of the parasympathetic nervous system.

par·a·sym·pa·thet·ic nerve

(par'ă-sim'pă-thet'ik nĕrv)
One of the nerves of the parasympathetic nervous system.

parasympathetic nerve

A nerve composed of axons of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Parasympathetic innervation is always a chain of two consecutive axons. The first axon, the preganglionic parasympathetic axon, has its cell body in the brainstem or in the intermediate gray column of spinal cord segments S2–S4; the first axon leaves the brainstem through the oculomotor (CN III), facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), or vagus (CN X) nerve, or it leaves the sacral spinal cord through a pelvic splanchnic nerve. The second axon in the chain, the postganglionic parasympathetic axon, has its cell body in a peripheral ganglion near its target tissue. The main transmitter used by both pre- and postganglionic parasympathetic axons is acetylcholine. In general, stimulation of parasympathetic nerves relaxes the body tone.
See also: nerve
References in periodicals archive ?
2002) (2) very low frequencies (VLF; > 25 sec cycle length) that are supposed to be affected by temperature regulation (Aoki 2001; Vornanen 2002) and humoral systems (Porter and Rivkees, 2001) (3) low frequencies (LF; > 6 sec cycle length in humans) that are sensitive to changes in cardiac sympathetic and presumably parasympathetic nerve activity (Lanfranchi and Somers, 2002; Malpas, 2002) (4) high frequencies (HF; 2.
In another study conducted by Kon et al (10), they have revealed an association between parasympathetic nerve withdrawal and inflammation in middle-aged to elderly Japanese general population.
This new type of polychromatic pulsed light produces calibrated and homogenously sequence light pulses which stimulate the parasympathetic nerves," the company said.
These cells and circuits regulate the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, which control the function of peripheral organs (liver, fat, muscles) and the secretion of glucagon and insulin by pancreatic islet cells.
Autonomic neuropathy can affect both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves with widespread results including poor bladder function and erectile dysfunction.
The neural pathways from the brain to the heart are via the right and left sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves (autonomic nerves) that are distributed asymmetrically in the ventricular myocardium.
With this study, to present anatomical information about topographic anatomy of cervicothoracic ganglion and the relation of this ganglion with sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves course on the same region and also to reveal similarities and differences that may be associated with the subject among other ruminants.
During normal bladder function, acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves activates muscarinic receptors in this organ, causing detrusor contraction and resultant micturition.
While no single set of data or hypothesis explains all involuntary contractions or occurrences of urgency/frequency, four concepts seem to be valid: 1) patients with OAB have faulty central inhibition, which leads to enhancement of excitatory neurotransmission in the micturition reflex pathway (neurogenic); 2) there is partial denervation of smooth muscle, which leads to co-ordinated myogenic contractions and increased bladder pressure (myogenic); 3) there is a "leaking" of acetylcholine from parasympathetic nerves during filling/storage, which leads to afferent activation (neurogenic-myogenic); and 4) abnormal signals originating in the urothelium are influenced by generation and release of local mediators (e.
There is direct evidence that, in fact, the parasympathetic nerves are the primary regulatory nerves of the lachrymal gland's tear production (Dartt 2009; Toshida et al.
Voiding in healthy situations is triggered by acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves activating the postjunctional muscarinic receptors in the detrusor.

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