Transmission electron micrograph of a parasitophorous vacuole
within a hepatocyte from a grey-headed parrot.
The features on transmission electron microscopy that allowed identification to the genus level include diplokaryotic nuclei, the absence of a parasitophorous vacuole
, vesicotubular appendages, and 8-11 polar tubule coils (1-6; Figure 2).
To provide additional information about a potential pathogen, this study describes, for the first time, colonial growth [i.e., growth of bacteria in both size and number in the parasitophorous vacuole
of the infected cell, according to Sun and Wu (2004)] and development of an E-RLO in some tissues of Crassostrea gigas.
In the hepatocyte, sporozoites are enclosed in a parasitophorous vacuole
to avoid lysosomal degradation.
It has been demonstrated that Gal-3 overexpression induced by infection is important for the parasite cycle, since it can facilitate processes such as adhesion to extracellular matrix, host cell entry, and evasion from parasitophorous vacuole
The content of these organelles is coordinately secreted during the parasitic invasion process, ensuring proper adhesion to the host cell surface membrane, reorientation, and host cell entry, as well as survival and further development in the parasitophorous vacuole
gondii rhoptry protein 17 (ROP17), a member of the ROP2 subfamily , was predicted to have a cellular localization on the parasitophorous vacuole
membrane (PVM), which may participate in the manipulation of the host signalling pathways .
Inside the final hepatocyte, sporozoites are enclosed by a parasitophorous vacuole
and develop into schizonts .
The transforming schizont is not restricted by the confines of a parasitophorous vacuole
and is in a perfect position to interfere with host cell signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation and survival (Shiels et al., 2006).
Rhoptry proteins have key biological roles in penetration into the host cell, and may facilitate the formation of the Parasitophorous Vacuole
(PV) and mediate its clustering with host cell organelles (15).
When the Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii parasites invade a host cell, they take up residence inside a "parasitophorous vacuole
" (PV), growing and replicating themselves for about 48 hours.