Clams with parasitized
gonads were observed in Santa Rosalia only; accordingly, only data from this site were analyzed.
Daily observations were carried out to record the number of parasitized
eggs, duration of the egg-to-adult period, emergence rate, and sex ratio.
The larvae of the second larval stage (L2) are parasitized
at 19%, the pupae are parasitized
at 23% and the pre-nymphs at 4.
In each jar (replication) twenty un- parasitized
pupae were seeded on soil surface inside the jars and then different depths of plant debris were covered and three pairs of pupal parasitoid D.
specimens predominated in the examined host species whilst none of the host species was parasitized
by more than two species of crustacean ectoparasites (Figure 2).
On the other hand, the commercial sized specimens were parasitized
by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms, ciliates, turbellarians and copepods.
After determining correct shape of the functional response parameter a (attack constant) and b (asymptote of functional response curve or maximum number of hosts parasitized
) were estimated using non-linear least squares regression procedure in SAS computer software and the values were used in Holling (1965) disc equationWhere Ne = the number of host parasitized
by a parasitiodper unit time a attack rate of a parasitiod N is the initial number of host provided to parasitiod at the onset of the experiment T is the total exposure time in the experiment and Th is the handling time for each host attacked.
In this model, the proportion of hosts parasitized
(Na/N) as a function of initial host density (N) is the effective way to distinguish type of functional response .
Rodents that are more frequently found parasitized
with T taeniaeformis around the world are murids like Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769, Rattus rattus Linnaeus, 1758, Bandicota bengalensis Gray, 1835 and Meriones persicus Blanford, 1875 (Bowman et al.
frugiperda caterpillars parasitized
, the emergence of C.
The nest cell diameter, maximum and minimum width and height of the colony above the ground were recorded; in addition, the number of nest cells, pupae, larvae and eggs of parasitized
colonies was determined in the laboratory from ten colonies of P.
All three host species were parasitized
by adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis.