and feline leukaemia virus infection in two cats.
The growth inhibition of parasitemia
on day five of andrographolide system-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles-treated group was 71.27[+ or -]6.83%, which was higher compared with the andrographolide-treated group (43.30[+ or -]1.83%) and carboxymethyl chitosan-treated group (45.48[+ or -]3.71%).
All case-patients were asplenic and had high levels of parasitemia
. Three of these 5 patients died.
Therefore, the antimalarial effect from C2 was not equal to or higher than ClQ, being this last the best antimalarial in the cure trials and controlling the parasitemia
from the beginning of the infection.
Statistical significance was determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey post hoc test to compare the measured parameters (parasitemia
suppression, weight, rectal temperature, and survival time) within and between groups.
= [Parasitemia in negative control--Parasitemia in study group]/ Parasitemia
in negative control x 100.
Infections were performed using trypomastigote forms obtained at peak of parasitemia
from previously infected Swiss mice (Waynforth and Flecknell, 1992).
To determine the type of immunological response induced after parasite challenge, the mice were bled after the peak of parasitemia
(day 30 after challenge), and serum IFN-[gamma], IL-2, TNF, and IL-4 cytokines were determined (Figure 5).
In this giant anteater, no clinical sign was observed during parasitemia
. In this case, stating that parasitemia
occurred by toxoplasmosis reactivation due to either recrudescence of the encysted bradyzoites or the acute phase of an infection is uncertain.
PCR has the ability of detecting the malarial parasite even in mixed infections and low parasitemia