This is consistent with previous results indicating that Scirpeae is paraphyletic
with respect to Cariceae (Leveille-Bourret et al.
In this opsin phylogeny InvC sequences form a monophyletic clade, but it is poorly supported; and in some cases this group is recovered as a number of basally branching paraphyletic
clades separated by taxa: panarthropods, echinoderms, and annelids (Bok et al., 2017).
In accordance with this pattern, a paraphyletic
Pterobryaceae constituted the sister taxon of Cryphaeaceae (Fig.
Previous studies of Dactylotini including Hesperotettix viridis Thomas, 1872 discovered that this tribe is paraphyletic
(Chapco 2006, Chintauan-Marquier et al.
The Prosigmodon species appear as a paraphyletic
group with Prosigmodon holocuspis in the base of a Sigmodon clade, and Prosigmodon oroscoi, Prosigmodon ferrusquiai, and Prosigmodon chihuahuensis at the base of all of the cricetids analyzed and close to C.
(2011), using complete sequences of cyt-b, recovered a paraphyletic
Corrientes group that included C.
Several genera, including Aleurodicus, were resolved as paraphyletic
. Aleurodicus rugioperculatus (RSW) is placed in the tree within the clade containing A.
While morphologically-based trees recognize mantle mites as a distinct monophyletic grouping (Edwards & Vidrine 2006), molecular phylogenies suggest that these mites are part of a paraphyletic
grade that includes gill mite taxa (Edwards et al.
In both cases, Archaea appeared as a basal paraphyletic
group of the ToLs and the common origin of Bacteria and Eukarya was maintained.
Meier, "The Muscoidea (Diptera: Calyptratae) are paraphyletic
: evidence from four mitochondrial and four nuclear genes," Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.