Phylogenetic analyses of the rhipicephaline ticks indicate that the genus Rhipicephalus is paraphyletic
at the same taxonomic level as mammal) and fish constitutes a paraphyletic
as a very homogenous and cladistically monophyletic group [13,14,15,47,48,51,52], whereas it considered the other three families as paraphyletic
The resulting trees show the genus Rhacophorus as a paraphyletic
But molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that Phyllanthus is paraphyletic
In most, if not all cases, the elimination is of paraphyletic
(or polyphyletic) assemblages of taxa (e.
However, Beaman & Judd (1996) suggested that this subgenus is paraphyletic
, and transferred T.
Thus, here, we also test the hypothesis that male urogenital duct anatomy will support a more traditional salamander phylogeny with a monophyletic Salamandroidea over a more controversial phylogeny with a paraphyletic
This study confirmed Mesoveliidae as being the sister group to all other families of Gerromorpha and also the close relationship between the Gerridae and Veliidae, but suggested that the superfamilies Gerroidea (Hermatobatidae + Gerridae + Veliidae) and Hydrometroidea (Paraphrynoveliidae + Macroveliidae + Hydrometridae), the family Veliidae, and the gerrid subfamily Cylindrostethinae were paraphyletic
entities, and that Gerrinae, Haloveliinae, Ocelloveliinae, Paraphrynoveliidae, and Veliinae lacked convincing morphological diagnostic characters.
Obolaria and Gentiana were the closest genera to Swertia, which is paraphyletic
including Halenia, Comastoma, Gentianella, and Lomatogonium.
Two of these appear to the natural species groups and the third, containing species with slender, needle-shaped denticles in random and dense array, is likely Paraphyletic
(see Straube et al.
Results from that study also suggested that the monotropoideae are monophyletic but that the myco-heterotrophic members may form a paraphyletic