was elicited in the parietal lobe.
An aphasia syndrome including reduction of speech output, anomia, and paraphasias
but without repeating difficulty is attributed to the thalamus.
When trying to repeat a sentence, they will produce many paraphasias
; they tend to make more errors trying to repeat words than trying to repeat numbers.
However, significant alterations were detected in prosody, repetition, oral praxis, fluency, and content information; phonemic fluency was diminished; reading aloud and writing to dictation of non-words were impaired; syntactic processing was slightly altered; and phonemic paraphasias
were frequent (Fig.
In progressive nonfluent aphasia, the ability to match semantically related objects is preserved, but nonfluent speech, phonemic paraphasias
(word substitutions), and agrammatism occur.
The third clinical variant, termed logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA) by Gorno-Tempini et al, (9,13) is characterised by slow spontaneous speech output with frequent word-finding pauses and phonemic paraphasias
. Several investigations have demonstrated that lvPPA is associated with atrophy of the posterior perisylvian and inferior parietal regions in the brain and is closely related to AD pathology.
However, the majority of her classifiable errors were semantic paraphasias
(e.g., hammock [right arrow] swing, leaf [right arrow] flower, squeezing [right arrow] lemon) or descriptions (e.g., dripping [right arrow] drops are coming down) (Table 1).
There are also phonemic paraphasias
, where the word or phrase produced is similar in sound to the target (e.g., "corned beef and garbage"), and semantic paraphasias
, where the word or phrase is similar in meaning to the target (e.g., using "driving range" to mean "parking lot").
Various analyses have been performed of the role of similarity in phonological paraphasias
. The classical study is Blumstein (1973).
However, while Patient l's confrontational naming skills were intact, Patient 2 did less well on the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass & Weintraub, 1983), with his low average performance characterised by many semantic paraphasias
in normal and aphasic speech.
Experience with the sentence Pas de si ni de mais teaches us that it seems to be an adequate alternative, remaining true to the original concept examined (articulatory agility, comprehension and presence of paraphasias