The thinking in which nothing is thought can be none other than the 'I think' that "must be able to accompany all my representations" (B 131); but it is, as Kant shows in the chapter on the Paralogisms
, absolutely empty and without content.
Kant begins his criticism of the Paralogism
of simplicity by remarking that it is in fact the Achilles of rational psychology, which signals that he considers this argument to be the central and most powerful of this purported science of the soul.
Cloth, $74.00--Dyck's detailed historical study places Kant's critical philosophy and his treatment of the soul, particularly in the Paralogisms
in the Critique of Pure Reason, in the context of eighteenth-century German philosophy.
Moreover, in light of the sustained attention given to the challenge of idealism in the Fourth Paralogism
and elsewhere, there is added reason to accept Kant's claim that the treatment in the second edition is necessary, unique, and original.
The fifth chapter analyzes the Refutation of Idealism--namely, the anti-skeptical argument of the second edition of the Critique--while the sixth chapter examines the various anti-skeptical arguments found in "Reflexionen zum Idealismus" and in "Vom inneren Sinne." Contrary to the view of most interpreters, Caranti argues that the Fourth Paralogism
is much superior to these later arguments.
The fourth chapter treats of personal identity over time, the subject of the third paralogism
. Kant is eventually committed to ultimate uncertainly concerning our noumenal self.
Part II (chapters 4, 5, and 6) is a sustained interpretation of Kant's psychology, particularly the relationship of the "I think" to the Paralogisms
. Chapter 4 is a striking comparison of Descartes's cogito to Kant's "I think," in which Longuenesse presents Kant as endorsing a version of Descartes's cogito argument while rejecting Descartes's answer to the question "What am I?" Chapters 5 and 6 go on to examine the first three Paralogisms
2) Thought disorders reflected by speech disorders of the verbigeration type, neologisms and paralogisms
, verbal stereotypes, a.s.o.
Kant's opposition is puzzling, given the metaphysical agnosticism he advocates in the Paralogisms
. Ameriks highlights several puzzling features of Kant's discussion and concludes that Kant reached a clear position only in the B edition.
Ameriks, Karl (1982), Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms
of Pure Reason.
In a section of the Critique of Pure Reason called the Paralogisms
of Reason, Kant proves the completely paradoxical nature of thought about reality (an inkling that, in fact, the problem isn't one of reality but of language itself).