in the head and neck region (Including aorticopulmonary paraganglia
), which are in close alignment with the parasympathetic nervous system,
Paragangliomas can derive from parasympathetic or sympathetic paraganglia
with similar frequencies.
Scott Jr., "Malignant tumors of nonchromaffi paraganglia
," Military Surgeon, vol.
Paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours that arise from extra-adrenal paraganglia
and consist of specialized catecholamine-secreting chromaffin cells.
Although it develops at the sites of normal paraganglia
mainly intraabdominally, glomus jugularae or carotid bodies; it may be found in other part of the body also.
The carotid body is bilaterally located at the bifurcation of the carotid artery, which is structurally analogous to vagal paraganglia
. The major cell type in the carotid body is type-I glomus cells, which are chemosensitive and responsive to chemical changes in the arterial blood.
Pheochromocytoma and extra-adrenal paraganglioma are rare chromaffin tumours arising from neural crest tissue that develops into sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia
throughout the body.
Phaeochromocytomas are neuro-endocrine catecholamine-secreting tumours that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla or sympathetic paraganglia
. Phaeochromocytomas are dubbed the '10% tumour' as 10% are extra-adrenal, 10% bilateral, 10% malignant and 10% familial (Fig.
First, direct stimulation of paraganglia
cells by inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, results in signaling through afferent fibers.
Balance is normally achieved through negative feedback by the innate immune system interacting with the PNS via IL-1 receptors in the parasympathetic paraganglia
Paragangliomas are rare tumors of the parasympathetic and sympathetic paraganglia
. Most parasympathetic paraganglioma (pPGL) present as palpable masses of the neck, originating from chemoreceptors like the carotid sinus.
Pheochromocytomas are uncommon tumors arising from the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic paraganglia
. Sympathetic ganglia are found predominantly in the para-axial region of the trunk along the prevertebral and paravertebral sympathetic chains and in the connective tissue in or near the walls of pelvic organs.