Opening Method:" Opening method" is a method easier than paraffin method, as stated by Agaoglu (1969), the majority of the material was opened with this method.
Paraffin method is composed of; detection, alcohol series, xylol series, paraffin saturation, xylol evaporation, inserting in pots to include porcelain templates, inserting in wooden blocks, cross-section taking, staining and sample preparing steps.
either opened and/or cut with paraffin method is found as composed of 11 phases by us Floral development is completed by the time first flowers bloom.
The raspberries that produce summer fruit in Ankara (Ayas) conditions with Opening and Paraffin methods had "Floral Development" between March-May and "Morphological Distribution" took place during March while raspberry that have autumn fruit completed its "Floral Development" between May-July and "Morphological Distribution" took place on May.
In order to determine the bud structures and floral development phases, opening and paraffin methods were used together.
At this point the apparent contradictions could not have been caused by artifacts associated with the paraffin method, as Carr and Carr (1970) suggested, since paraffin sectioning was not commonly used for botanical work until after 1881, when Butschli and Giesbrecht independently published papers promoting paraffin serial sectioning (Bracegirdle, 1978).
They noted that the epithelial cells are delicate and are difficult to successfully fix and embed, especially with paraffin embedding, and argued that published images of glands that had been processed for the paraffin method frequently show extensive mechanical damage.
Like Carr and Carr (1970), they concluded that the paraffin method leads to a false impression of lysigeny, and they suggest that all Rutaceae may be schizogenous.