The incidence of pediatric ischemic stroke in children with CHD who have undergone surgery is 0.54%. The risk factors associated with CHD for stroke are hypoxemia, hyperhemoglobinemia, and paradoxical embolus
. However, previous studies have focused mainly on ischemic stroke; the data on hemorrhage stroke are scarce. It is commonly believed that patients with CHD have an increased likelihood of peripheral vascular malformation.
No LV apical thrombus or intracardiac defects (eg, patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect) that might have contributed to thromboembolism or paradoxical embolus
were seen on echocardiogram or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.
There was no patent foramen ovale that might have led to paradoxical embolus
. A urine and serum toxicology screen was also done on the patient who came back as negative for cocaine or methamphetamine.