These preliminary data let us hypothesize that CD13 protein could be one of the key factors involved in the regulation and determination of both primary (stress induced) and paracrine
senescence in human BM-MSCs.
Epicardial fat is an endocrine and paracrine
source of cytokines.
Second, the role of stem cells in paracrine
secretion, which can promote the multiplication capacity of endogenous hepatocytes.
In this review, we focus on the role of the epithelial EGFR/ADAM17 signaling pathway that transmits signals from luminal receptors towards underlying tissue (paracrine
) and epithelial cells (autocrine) (Figure 3), affecting inflammation and remodeling.
Second, although the potential mechanisms of hAECs in promoting tissue repairs are not yet well-understood, the main therapeutic mechanisms of stem cells have been explained by paracrine
effects rather than transdifferentiation, considering that only a fraction of grafted hAECs could survive in the damaged tissues [13, 20, 38].
mediators like extra cellular matrix factors angiogenic growth factors and interleukins among others could stimulate regeneration from resident cardiac stem cells and/or cardiomyocytes.
Treatment with dHACM in this animal model improved cardiac repair following myocardial infarction through multiple paracrine
effects, including through improved cell survival, enhanced vascularization, and recruitment of autologous stem cells within the infarcted cardiac tissue.
Nevertheless, another study suggested that human KSPCs cells improve renal function by secreting paracrine
factors that promote tubular repair (Ranghini et al., 2013; Sallustio et al., 2013).
. BM-MSCs can enhance the migration, angiogenesis, and reepithelialization via paracrine
to accelerate wound repair.
MSCs improve tissue repair by trans differentiation as well as by paracrine
These results may indicate that the paracrine
effect of NE cells existing in the normal glands located in the periphery of the TZ influences the growth of the early stage of adenoma in the TZ.
Additionally, the paracrine
signaling between LSECs and hepatocytes is crucial for the functional maintenance of the parenchyma.