is sloped posteriorly and directed backwardly to form a parastyle.
Parastyle is considered as a cingulum derivative, expressed on the paracone
, arising from an accessory enamel knot at the tooth surface (Scott & Turner, 1997; Rodriguez et al., 2006).
euryodon of a parastyle in the P4, starting from the union of the anterior crista of the paracone
with the cingulum (NAP XV 76'08).
M3 occlusal surface: 0 = cuspate with a distinct paracone
, protocone, and hypocone; 1 = lophate with 3 lophs; 2 = lophate with 2 lophs.
To pursue an ecological reconstruction of Taung, and to compare diet niche patterns to the attribution of specimens, the dental microwear signals of fossil papionins from Taung, including Parapapio antiquus (n = 8), Papioizodi (n = 12), and Indeterminate (n = 10) were examined by counting dental microwear features at low-magnification stereomicroscopy (35x) within a 0.4 by 0.4 mm ocular reticle on the paracone
of the second molar.
Forslund (1982) developed a tree bole model that describes a geometrical form between a paraboloid and a cone, which he called a "Paracone
." The model is based on empirical evidence that the average center of gravity of the tree bole without branches lies at 3/10 of the bole height from its base and may provide a unique reference location for estimating bole volume, as further substantiated by Wiant et al.
Most Cretaceous marsupials are diagnosed on the basis of upper molar morphology; the paracone
of [M.sup.2] was selected for analysis because this cusp was determined to be most suitable for obtaining repeatable measurements, and this tooth was best represented for the greatest number of species.
and metacone are sharp with their cristae running antero-posteriorly namely praeparacrista, postparacrista, praemetacrista and postmetacrista respectively.
is round and prominent among the cusps in premolars.
To determine cusp relief, we measured the depth of the valley between the paracone
and metacone cusps as well as the anteroposterior length of each tooth using the computer software ImageJ 1.47 (Rasband, 2013).
The protocone and paracone
are equivalent in size, and separated from the hypocone-metacone complex by a deep valley.