paracetamol


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ac·et·a·min·o·phen (APAP),

(as-et-ă-mi'nō-fen),
An antipyretic and analgesic, with potency similar to that of aspirin.
Synonym(s): paracetamol

paracetamol

(păr′ə-sē′tə-môl′, -môl′)

paracetamol

paracetamol

An over-the-counter analgesic used for headaches, muscle or joint pain, and fever, which lacks anti-inflammatory activity.
 
Therapeutic range
10–25 mg/L
 
Critical value
≥ 300 mg/L

Toxicology
Overdose can cause fatal liver failure. Up to 10% of hospitalisations for overdose and 40% of acute hepatic failure are linked to paracetamol overdose, which is more often accidental—e.g., children, alcoholics—than suicidal. Doses of > 150 mg/kg/24 hours cause acute liver failure.

Clinical stage of paracetamol toxicity
1. 1–24 hours—Non-specific.
2. 24–48 hours—Right upper quadrant pain, tenderness with elevated liver enzymes.
3. 72–96 hours—Marked increase in liver enzymes; fulminant hepatic failure, coagulopathy, acidosis.
4. 4–14 days—Liver recuperates or patient dies.

Pathogenesis of paracetamol overdose
90% is metabolised in the liver to non-toxic glucuronide and sulphate conjugates; 5% is oxidised by cytochrome p450 to NAPQI, which covalently binds to hepatocyte macromolecules, leading to hepatocyte death; 5% is excreted unchanged in urine.

Specimen
Blood, urine.
 
Method
Immunoassay-FPIA.

paracetamol

A drug widely used to relieve pain and reduce fever. The drug does not irritate the stomach, as ASPIRIN does, but overdose causes liver and kidney damage and may cause death from liver failure. 15 g or more is potentially serious. The victim remains well for a day or two and liver failure develops between the third and fifth day. The drug is on the WHO official list. Brand names are Alvedon, Calpol Disprol Paediatric, Infadrops, Medinol and Salzone. Preparations that include paracetamol include Cosalgesic, Distalgesic, Domperamol, Fortagesic, Kapake, Midrid, Migraleve, Paradote, Paramax, Remedeine and Solpadol.
acetaminophen; N -acetyl- p -aminophenol; paracetamol a non-opioid analgesic with little or no anti-inflammatory action; first-line painkiller of choice; used with care in patients with hepatic or renal impairment, or alcohol dependency, or those taking metoclopramide; overdose causes severe liver damage and death; recommended adult dose: daily maximum of 4 g (i.e. 8 × 500 mg tablets) (see Table 1)
Table 1: Principles of pain management
StepPain typeManagement regimeExamples of drug
1Mild to moderateNon-opioid analgesics:
Paracetamol
  • NSAIDs:

  • Pyrazoles

± Adjuvant drugs:
Paracetamol
Aspirin; ibuprofen pheylbutazone;
dipyrone
Amitriptyline
Gabapentin
Mexilitine
Ketamine
2Moderate to severeLess potent opioidsCodeine
  • Dihydrocodeine

  • Dextropropoxyphene

± Non-opioid analgesics
± Adjuvant drugs
Paracetamol
As above
3SeverePotent opioidsMorphine
Tramadol
Fentanyl
Oxycodone
± Non-opioid analgesics
± Adjuvant drugs
Paracetamol
As above

Pain management should address both the nociceptive and neuropathic components of pain.

NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

paracetamol

see acetaminophen.

acetaminophen, paracetamol

an analgesic and antipyretic drug in dogs. It is contraindicated for cats because of serious side-effects which include intravascular hemolysis, methemoglobinemia and hepatic necrosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
The team - from the University's MRC Centre for Reproductive Health - say further research is required to establish the mechanism by which paracetamol might have this effect.
The guidelines were changed following the death of a young woman from a paracetamol overdose.
com, suggest a "significant decrease" in deaths involving paracetamol.
Professor Hans Bisgaard, senior researchers, said parents should only use paracetamol when necessary, such as when a child had a high temperature, but added: "We would like to stress that the use of this drug indeed is beneficial in the appropriate circumstances.
Although an earlier study showed the administration of a single dose of prophylactic paracetamol four hours after DTwP (diphtheria, tetanus and whole cell pertussis vaccine) did not affect the immune response in five-month-old infants, the study population is too small and specific for the data to be generalised to the population receiving the diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis or pneumococcal vaccines currently in use.
When she died nine days later her family warned that paracetamol could be deadly and called for it to be made a prescription-only drug.
Antipyretic plasma concentrations of paracetamol are widely quoted to lie between 66 and 132 [micro]mol/l (10 to 20 mg/l) (4).
After the operation, she was in a lot of pain and was taking paracetamol to deal with it.
paracetamol over a period of time to relieve pain could be at a higher risk of
Combining ibuprofen and paracetamol at nonprescription doses conferred a modest improvement in pain relief in adults with knee pain/osteoarthritis.
INDIAN experts have called for a review of pain and fever-reducing combination drugs marketed in the country following an advisory by US regulatory authorities that limits paracetamol dosage when given in combination with other drugs.