Many of these enter saliva from the serum by passing through the spaces between the cells by transcellular (passive intracellular diffusion and/or active transport) or paracellular
(extracellular ultrafiltration) routes.
Potentially, if the xylitol is absorbed in a nonmediated, paracellular
, nonsaturable process, as is seen with other sugars, such as glucose, in other nectivorous birds, it could have caused a rapid, large insulin release.
The foremost function of BBB is to limit paracellular
movement of solutes, ions, and water to modulate the intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways.
Claudin-1 and E-cadherin are important component proteins of tight junctions and adhesion junctions, respectively, which control the intestinal epithelium paracellular
pathway (Tang & Goodenough, 2003; Lee et al.
Transport across the intestinal epithelium via the paracellular
route is minimal due to tight junctions (TJ) between neighbouring cells (15).
Bacterial penetration may in principle either be paracellular
, via penetration through intercellular tight junctions, or transcellular, following invasion and/or damage to cells.
Previously, it was reported that gliadin crosses the epithelium through paracellular
Ahrne S, Hagslatt ML Effect of lactobacilli on paracellular
permeability in the gut.
Although lymphocytes were reported to cross the endothelial barrier using both paracellular
(between adjacent ECs) and transcellular (through the cytoplasm of ECs) migration routes, Schoefl clearly showed, using electron microscopic and mathematical analyses, that lymphocytes predominantly use the paracellular
route to exit HEVs.
pathway and the lactating human breast.
Alcohol and its metabolites cause paracellular
permeability by acting on the tight-junction complex, which melds two adjoining cells together.
Tight junctions and the molecular basis for regulation of paracellular