Faced with high resistance of enterocyte plasma membranes, dissolved material flow is via the paracellular
route and TJs are the basic obstacle to this route.
It has also been reported that elevated levels of ICAM-1 are associated with the disturbance of the actin cytoskeleton, thereby affecting paracellular
permeability and producing gaps in the cell junctions (33), which might facilitate the invasion of bacteria.
Breaches in the GI barrier systems that potentiate paracellular
systemic uptake of macromolecules may be associated with insufficiency dysbiosis, chronic stress, caloric deprivation and low fiber diets, direct adhesion of any bacteria to GI endothelial cells, alcohol/pharmaceuticals/NSAIDS, environmental xenobiotics, inflammation, gluten, an energy dense "Western style diet, and excessive exercise with heat stress.
The multistring nature of the junctions between adjacent cells in the freshwater fish gill presumably hinder paracellular
diffusion of N[H.sub.4.sup.+] and apical [H.sup.+]-ATPase will not extrude N[H.sub.3].
Tight junctions (TJs) located between adjacent Type I epithelial cells are the primary barrier to paracellular
Tight junctions (TJs) are a junctional complex between epithelial cells sealing the paracellular
space across the epithelia.
The researchers found that CAGE significantly enhanced paracellular
transport of insulin, protecting insulin from enzymatic degradation and interacting with the mucus layer, causing it to thin.
TJ is the most apical structure within the intercellular cleft, creating a paracellular
barrier that is essential for survival of complex organisms.
Chitosan could open the intercellular tight junctions and facilitate the paracellular
transport of macromolecules; nano- and microparticles are suitable for controlled vaccine release (28,29).
Transport experiments were performed using the paracellular
marker sodium fluorescein (NaFlu) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a modulator of the tight junctions, according to (Elbert et al., 1999; Kuehn et al., 2016), with minor modifications.
The ATP depletion induces the diminution of renal epithelial cells and increase of paracellular
structurally complex paracellular
space which is partially lined by an