The IHC staining of p53 was negative in the normal basal and parabasal cells
of the normal cervical squamous epithelium.
Cell wise distribution of the median frequencies for MMP-2 showed 2:9.50 in basal layer of cells, 2:4 in the parabasal cells
, and 2 : 12 in fibroblasts of lamina propria (Figure 3(a)).
Results of 5 phase III clinical trials, involving 2171 postmenopausal women, showed that ospemifene, 60 mg/d, significantly improved the vaginal maturation index (decreased parabasal cells
and increased superficial cells), decreased vaginal pH, and decreased severity of the self-identified most bothersome symptom of dyspareunia compared to placebo.
The percentage of parabasal cells
decreased in both treatment groups compared with participants who received placebo (21.9% in the 30-mg group, 30.1% in the 60-mg group, and 3.98% in the placebo group; Pc.001 for both).
With decreased estrogen, there is accompanying decreased In the percentage of vaginal superficial cells, and a concomitant increase in vaginal parabasal cells
. These cellular changes are commonly expressed as a maturation index or Ml (FIGURE 2).
With fewer superficial and intermediate squamous cells, there are more parabasal cells
. Initially, those cells are exfoliated as single cells or small groups of metaplastic-appearing cells, but with advanced atrophy, the epithelium becomes so thin that large surface fragments of parabasal cells
exfoliate and may predominate.
The 30 mg and 60 mg dose both improved pH, superficial and parabasal cells
on maturation index in a statistically significant fashion compared to placebo as early as 4 weeks and at 12 weeks.
Positive staining in parabasal cells
is found under normal conditions, so interpreting the results of this stain rests on examination of the middle and upper thirds of the squamous epithelium.
A wet mount shows a marked increase in neutrophils with scattered parabasal cells
A wet mount shows parabasal cells
and no lactobacilli.
Lichen planus is characterized by purulent discharge that contains bacteria, white blood cells, and parabasal cells
. Unusual enteric microbes are often detected by routine culture, but antibiotic therapy is not helpful.