Our recent qualitative review of exposure studies in North American agricultural environments found that increased pesticide concentrations in house dust were associated with take-home exposure from closer distances between homes and treated fields (agricultural drift pathway), farm work by one or more house residents (para-occupational pathway), and greater residential use of pesticides to treat various home, garden, and yard insects and weeds (residential use pathway) (Deziel et al.
Our primary aim was to quantify the relative magnitude of exposure differences in dust pesticide concentrations in relation to surrogates representing each of the agricultural drift (e.g., distance of house to fields), para-occupational (e.g., how frequently a household member applies pesticides agriculturally), and residential pesticide use (e.g., treatment of insects or weeds in the home, yard, or garden) exposure pathways in North American agricultural homes.
We included publications reporting pesticide concentrations in house dust in relation to agricultural drift, para-occupational activities, or residential use of pesticides in North American agricultural homes from our prior literature review (Deziel et al.
From each study related to the para-occupational pathway, we abstracted summary statistics of the dust pesticide concentrations for independent groups with different exposure potential ("comparison groups").
For the para-occupational and residential use pathways, the data were often abstracted from multivariable regression models that examined the association between log-transformed exposure and various determinants of exposure.
We developed separate mixed-effects meta-regression models for each of the agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use pathways using PROC MIXED (version 9.3; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).
For para-occupational and residential use, the data were often abstracted as ratios from multivariable regression models, and these models used the log-transformed ratios of GMs from the high use and reference groups as the dependent variable.
When para-occupational exposure (e.g., living near an asbestos factory or handling clothes contaminated with asbestos, due to occupational exposure) are added to the occupational ones, the attributable factor can rise to > 95% .
In Italy, among the incident MM cases in the period 19932004, occupational asbestos exposure was observed in 69.3%, while para-occupational exposure was observed in 9.1%.
Para-occupational exposure (due to hobbies or similar) have not been tracked, and likely none was present.