Furthermore, wide verities of ocular abnormalities were noticed in preeclampsia and eclampsia which include papillophlebitis
, white centered retinal hemorrhages, macular edema, Elschnig spots, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) lesions, optic neuritis and atrophy, ischemic optic neuropathy, retinal artery and vein occlusion, exudative retinal detachment, and cortical blindness.
is a rare ocular disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by retinal hemorrhage, optic disc edema, and tortuosity of the retinal vessels.
A fundus examination can reveal hypertensive retinopathy (in 40-100% of cases), exudative retinal detachments, white-centered retinal hemorrhages, papillophlebitis
, Elschnig spots, macular oedema, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) defects, vascular occlusion, optic neuritis, optic atrophy, ischaemic optic neuropathy and cortical blindness.
Although most patients with CRVO are over 65 years, it can occur in younger patients commonly termed papillophlebitis
. Younger patients frequently have an associated inflammatory cause or coagulopathy, which deserve particular attention.
The differential diagnosis included thrombosis of the central retinal vein branch or papillophlebitis
. The patient was asked to undergo testing of complete blood count and phospholipid status, screening of coagulation factors, computerized visual field, optical coherence tomography of fundus, and check-up by the neurologist with nuclear magnetic resonance of endocranium.
Papillophlebitis is an uncommon ocular condition of undetermined etiology.
Fundoscopic examination of the right eye revealed splinter hemorrhages, optic nerve head hemorrhage, and cotton wool spots in the superior arcuate region, and the patient was diagnosed with papillophlebitis (Figure 1).
To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of papillophlebitis as the initial presentation of GBS.
Papillophlebitis, considered a subtype of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), is a clinical condition more common in young adults.
Unlike CRVO, papillophlebitis spontaneously resolves, and its etiology also differs from that of CRVO.
In this case report we describe a bilateral, simultaneous papillophlebitis case thought to be related to hyperhomocysteinemia secondary to C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahyrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme.
document a case with bilateral, simultaneous papillophlebitis
thought to be related to hyperhomocysteinemia secondary to methylenetetrahyrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (C677T) polymorphism.