papilloedema


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Papilloedema with swelling of the optic nerve head, caused by increased intracranial pressure with oedema-induced blurring of the disk margins and obliteration of the optic cup, elevation of the nerve head, capillary congestion, hyperemia, venous engorgement, loss of venous pulse, peripapillary exudates, retinal wrinkling, and punctate nerve fiber layer hemorrhage; if pressure is reduced, fundus returns to normal without loss of vision; increased intracranial pressure is due to meningoencephalitis, hemorrhage, metabolic disease, toxins, trauma, or tumours

pa·pil·le·de·ma

(pap'il-ĕ-dē'mă)
Edema of the optic disc, due to increased intracranial pressure.
Synonym(s): choked disc, papilloedema.

papilloedema

Swelling and protrusion of the OPTIC DISC at the back of the inside of the eye. This is visible by means of an OPHTHALMOSCOPE and is an important indication of a rise in the pressure within the skull. Raised pressure is transmitted along the sheaths of the optic nerves. Papilloedema is always serious and may indicate a brain tumour or other major disorder. Early observation of papilloedema may be life-saving.

papilloedema 

A non-inflammatory oedema of the optic nerve head produced by raised intracranial pressure, and due most commonly to a cerebral tumour. It can also result from cerebral abscesses, meningitis, encephalitis, subarachnoid haemorrhages, head injury, hydrocephalus, etc. The optic disc appears raised above the level of the retina and its margins are blurred, the central vessels on the surface of the disc are displaced forward, the retinal veins are dilated and there is nearly always a loss of induced venous pulsation. The swollen disc displaces the retina and this causes an enlargement of the blind spot on visual field measurement. In the early stages visual acuity is not affected (unlike in papillitis), although if the condition persists there will be some loss. In advanced stages, there may be haemorrhages around the disc, secondary optic atrophy, exudates, as well as headaches and vomiting. The condition is usually bilateral. Note: also spelt papilledema. Syn. choked disc. See optic atrophy; optic neuritis; pseudopapilloedema; Foster Kennedy syndrome.
Table P1 Differential diagnosis between papilloedema and papillitis
papilloedemapapillitis
signs
disc elevationraisedslightly raised
disc hyperaemiapresentpresent
disc marginsblurredblurred
retinal veinscongestedcongested
haemorrhagesnear discsome in late stage
pupil light reflexnormalimpaired
venous pulsationabsentpresent
secondary optic atrophypresent in late stagemay appear in late stage
symptoms
visual acuitynormal, except in late stagereduced
visual fieldenlarged blind spotcentral scotoma
diplopiapresentabsent
colour visionnormalimpaired
painabsentpresent on moving the eyes
headachepresentabsent

pa·pil·le·de·ma

(pap'il-ĕ-dē'mă)
Edema of the optic disc.
Synonym(s): choked disc, papilloedema.
[papilla + edema]
References in periodicals archive ?
Seizures and papilloedema were excluded from these analyses, as numbers were too small for these variables.
These symptoms are thought to reflect critical compromise of optic nerve head perfusion and are typically associated with the finding of papilloedema.
In all patients the stent eliminated the pressure gradient, improved IIH symptoms and abolished papilloedema. Similar improvements have been reported in other studies (78-81).
Neurological examination showed that the patient had aphasia, hemiparesis, papilloedema, and 3rd (III), 7th (V11), and 9th (IX) cranial nerve palsies, and he was scheduled For surgery.
They describe ocular anatomy and eye examination, then core conditions in ophthalmology, including the ophthalmic features of systemic hypertension, diabetes, sarcoidosis, endocarditis, and demyelinating disease and space-occupying lesions of the brain, as well as how to recognize iritis, different forms of retinopathy, and the difference between papilloedema and papillitis.
Visual fields and Ishihara colour vision were normal and there was no evidence of an afferent papillary defect or papilloedema. A CT scan of the head showed no abnormalities, so the right medial rectus muscle was treated with Botox injection.
His blood pressure was noted to be 250/150 mmHg, and fundoscopy showed bilateral papilloedema. His records showed a normal ophthalmic examination 3 months previously.
Changes in optic nerve head blood flow in children with cerebral malaria and acute papilloedema. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.
Papilloedema was suspected on ophthalmoscopy, and head tilt was seen to the left by the time she was examined in the ward.
The 19-year-old was suffering headaches and dizzy spells, so staff trained a retinal camera that she normally uses on customers on her eyes - and spotted the potentially fatal condition Papilloedema.
Concerning cerebral tumours, Babinski put great emphasis on the effects on the papilloedema; the side where the papilloedema is predominant can indicate where the surgeon should apply himself.
Fundoscopy showed bilateral papilloedema and flame haemorrhages.