(9-12) In psittacine birds, reports also include panophthalmitis
, sinusitis with enophthalmia, ingluviitis, otitis media, and cellulitis.
Although visual loss is usually absent or limited but sometimes severe ocular complications occur like ischemic optic neuritis78 occlusion of central or branched retinal vessels9 Vogt-Koyanagi- Harada like disease aggravation of diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy panophthalmitis
vitreous and pre retinal haemorrhage.
Suprachoroidal septic effusion leading to panophthalmitis
following strabismus surgery.
Corneal ulceration, anterior uveitis, panophthalmitis
, polyarthritis, hematuria, and acute tubular necrosis leading to renal failure may also occur.
Klebsiella pneumoniae panophthalmitis
: a possible complication of endoscopic variceal injection sclerotherapy.
Ifthe infection is localized to the bleb, the prognosis is relatively good [14, 15]; however, if the infection extends into the vitreous and becomes panophthalmitis
, it often results in blindness [10, 14, 16, 17].
The complications associated with iris prolapse and corneal laceration include uveitis, endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis
, anterior synechia, pigmentation, secondary glaucoma and dehiscence of suture (Miller, 2008).
Complicated cases where there was panophthalmitis
, evisceration was the treatment option preferred.
(47,48) If treatment is delayed, ulcerations, anterior synechiae, anterior staphyloma, panophthalmitis
, and loss of the eye may result.
CT scan was done in patients with severe proptosis and in patients with suspected panophthalmitis
or cavernous venous thrombosis (Fig.
Otherwise this leads to dangerous complications like panophthalmitis
, facial cellulitis, orbital cellulitis and sometimes life threatening conditions like cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis.
(5,6) Corneal ulceration and perforation, iridocyclitis, anterior synechiae, and panophthalmitis
from untreated gonococcal ophthalmitis may result in permanent vision loss and blindness.