Nofrate et al., "Improvement in cell function after diet-induced weight loss is associated with decrease in pancreatic polypeptide in subjects with type 2 diabetes," Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, vol.
Misawa et al., "Quantitative analysis of pancreatic polypeptide cell distribution in the human pancreas," PLoS ONE, vol.
Bovine pancreatic polypeptide
: action on gastric and pancreatic secretion in dogs.
Immunocytochemical methods have shown the islets to be composed of a cells producing glucagon (15-20%), (Beta) cells producing insulin and amylin (65-80%), d cells producing somatostatin (3-10%), PP cells producing pancreatic polypeptide
(3-5%), and epsilon cells producing ghrelin, an antisatiety hormone (<1%) (Elayat et al., 1995; Andraloic et al., 2009).
The correlation between the concentration of pancreatic polypeptide and other regulatory peptide concentrations seemed to be negative.
** CCK = Cholecystokinin; PP = Pancreatic polypeptide; GIP = Gastric inhibitory peptide; same as following.
There were, however, some reports in which the tumor secreted somatostatin or pancreatic polypeptide
, which was detected in the serum during the follow-up.
These neoplasms are positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin by immunohistochemistry and can be focally positive for somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide
(Figure 2, F), vasoactive intestinal peptide, insulin, and/or glucagon.
Identification of Hormones Produced by the Neoplasia.--Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms may express normally produced pancreatic hormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide
), hormones of ectopic origin (gastrin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, adrenocorticotrophic hormone), and bioamines (serotonin).
Results of Immunostaining for the IPMH, Islet Cell Tumor, and Hyperplastic Islets * IPMH ICT Hyperplasia CAM 5.2 + - - CA 19-9 + - - CEA + - - Insulin - - + Glucagon - - + Somatostatin - - + PP - - + Synaptophysin - + + * IPMH indicates intraductal papillary mucinous hyperplasia; ICT, islet cell tumor; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; and PP, pancreatic polypeptide
Immunoreactivity for pancreatic polypeptide
and somatostatin stains was negative.
(*) MPNST indicates malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; GFAP, glialfibrillary acid protein; NF, neurofilament; EMA, epithelial membrane antigen; PP, pancreatic polypeptide
; NSE, neuron-specific enolase; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; and AFP, [Alpha]-fetoprotein.