palonosetron hydrochloride

palonosetron hydrochloride

Aloxi

Pharmacologic class: Selective serotonin subtype 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist

Therapeutic class: Antiemetic

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Selectively binds to and antagonizes 5-HT3 receptors on vagal nerve terminals and in chemoreceptor trigger zone. This action blocks serotonin release, reducing the vomiting reflex.

Availability

Solution for injection: 0.25 mg (free base) in 5-ml single-use vial

Indications and dosages

To prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy

Adults: 0.25 mg I.V. as a single dose 30 minutes before chemotherapy. Repeated doses within 7 days aren't recommended.

To prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting

Adults: 0.075 mg I.V. as a single dose given over 10 seconds immediately before anesthesia induction

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or its components

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• hypersensitivity to other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists

• diabetes mellitus, hepatic dysfunction

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children.

Administration

• Flush I.V. line with normal saline solution before and after giving.

• Deliver into I.V. line over 30 seconds. Don't mix with other drugs.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, fatigue, insomnia, dizziness, anxiety

CV: hypotension, vein discoloration and distention, nonsustained tachycardia, bradycardia

GI: constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia

GU: glycosuria

Metabolic: fluctuating electrolyte levels, hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia

Musculoskeletal: joint pain

Other: fever, flulike symptoms

Interactions

Drug-diagnostic tests: Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood and urine glucose, potassium: increased levels

Patient monitoring

• Monitor vital signs and ECG. Watch closely for tachycardia, bradycardia, and hypotension.

• Watch electrolyte levels for fluctuations (especially hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis).

• Evaluate temperature. Stay alert for flulike symptoms.

• Closely monitor blood and urine glucose levels in diabetic patients. Stay alert for hyperglycemia.

Patient teaching

• Explain that drug helps prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy.

• Teach patient to recognize and report signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis.

• Advise patient to report flulike symptoms.

• Instruct diabetic patient to closely watch blood and urine glucose levels.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the tests mentioned above.

Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
The global health care company in Lake Zurich said the palonosetron hydrochloride injection is now available.
Palonosetron hydrochloride injection, an 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is used in adults to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur as a result of receiving cancer chemotherapy with a moderate or high risk of causing nausea and vomiting.
Reddy's is allowed to launch a generic version of palonosetron hydrochloride via an ANDA prior to September 30, 2018, except under certain circumstances.
Palonosetron hydrochloride 1.5 [micro]g/kg body weight intravenous, both diluted in 0.9% NS to make a total volume of 5 ml.
Palonosetron (palonosetron hydrochloride) is a second generation 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonist, developed for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients with cancer, with a long half-life of 40 hours and at least 30 times higher receptor binding affinity than currently available compounds.
MGI PHARMA markets Aloxi(r) (palonosetron hydrochloride) Injection, Dacogen(tm) (decitabine) for Injection and Gliadel (r) Wafer (polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implant) in the United States.
sales of Aloxi(R) (palonosetron hydrochloride) Injection totaled $63.3 million compared to $57.2 million in the first quarter of 2005.
Palonosetron Hydrochloride Injection is a 5-HT 3 serotonin receptor indicated in adults for moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy -- prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses; highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy -- prevention of acute nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses; and prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting for up to 24 hours following surgery.
Reddy's Laboratories Launches Palonosetron Hydrochloride Injection in US Market
Sales of Aloxi(R) (palonosetron hydrochloride) Injection are expected to total approximately $63 million for the first quarter of 2006.