(1933) Primary paralysis agitans (primary atrophy of efferent striatal and pallidal
Carlson et al., "Neuropsychological changes following deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson's disease: comparisons of treatment at pallidal
and subthalamic targets versus best medical therapy," Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol.
Finally, in the presence of chronic liver disease, pallidal
MRI hyperintensities, and neuropsychiatric symptoms, the medical work-up should include a serum manganese level.
Long-term results of a multicenter study on subthalamic and pallidal
stimulation in Parkinson's disease.
Defining a therapeutic target for Pallidal
Deep Brain Stimulation for Dystonia.
Organization of the output of the ventral striatopallidal system in the rat: ventral pallidal
Long-term high-frequency bilateral pallidal
stimulation for neuroleptic-induced tardive dystonia: report of two cases.
Other distinct clinicopathologic disorders in the scope of Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome include dementia, tetraparesis, neurofibrillary tangles, retinitis pigmentosa and acanthocytosis with or without lipid abnormalities, including hypoprebetalipoproteinemia, acanthocytosis, retinitis pigmentosa, pallidal
(2008) The persistent effects of unilateral pallidal
and subthalamic deep brain stimulation on force control in advanced Parkinson's patients.
index, an imaging outcome, was one of the primary end points of a separate study that looked at the connection between exposure to manganese fumes by asymptomatic welders and the development of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Neurology 201 l;76:1296-301).The index is a ratio of Tl-weighted imaging signal in the global pallidus, compared with a reference region of white matter.