The mass was seen to have invaded the palatopharyngeus
to the right and the constrictor muscle of the pharynx to the left.
(9) The palatopharyngeus
muscle resides within the posterior pillar mucosa and aids in pharyngeal shortening.
The four muscles of the soft palate (palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus
, tensor veli palatini, and levator veli palatini) aid in swallowing and are critical in opening of the Eustachian tubes; thus, injury to the palatal region can impair these functions.
The anterior pillar is formed by the palatoglossus muscle and posterior pillar is defined by the palatopharyngeus
These modifications include complete removal of the uvula and distal soft palate, removal of part of the palatopharyngeus
muscle and the use of an uvulopalatal flap (13-20).
There is also differential activity of the palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus
, musculus uvulae, and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscles.
After the palatopharyngeus
muscle was identified, its inferior end was horizontally incised and dissected over the posterior superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle up to the upper pole of the tonsil, then the free end was sutured with an 8-shaped suture using 3/0 Vicryl.
The anterior tonsillar pillar is the mucosa-covered palatoglossus muscle, and the posterior tonsillar pillar is the mucosa-covered palatopharyngeus
In some cases, an increase in the thickness of the lateral pharyngeal wall is commensurate with the increase in muscle mass in the hyoglossus, styloglossus, palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus
, and pharyngeal constrictor muscles; these increases are linked to the need for excessive effort to overcome the increased muscle laxity in snoring or during apnea.
Mortimore et al wrote that upper airway obstruction at the retropalatal level is related to the imbalance between the activity of the levator and tensor veli palatini muscles, which elevate and tense the soft palate, and the activity of the palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus
muscles, which depress the soft palate anteroinferiorly.
Hemostats are used to clamp the palatopharyngeus
muscle longitudinally on either side for hemostasis.
The efficiency of the action of upper airway dilating muscles--such as the genioglossus, geniohyoid, palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus
, stylopharyngeus, and tensor palatini--depends on the proper coordination of their contraction with that of the diaphragm, the vector angles through which they act, and the linear distance through which they contract.