Extrinsic muscles of tongue namely genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus and palatoglossus
are responsible for positioning the tongue in the oral cavity.
arises from the palatine aponeurosis and enters broadly across the tongue; the main function of it is elevating the posterior aspect of the tongue.
The four muscles of the soft palate (palatoglossus
, palatopharyngeus, tensor veli palatini, and levator veli palatini) aid in swallowing and are critical in opening of the Eustachian tubes; thus, injury to the palatal region can impair these functions.
muscle is innervated by vagus nerve, the other seven muscles are innervated by hypoglossal nerve.
These scholars have identified a complex of muscles that considered key to the mechanism of swallowing, they are: higher pharyngeal constrictor, palatopharyngeal, palatoglossus
, posterior intrinsic muscles of the tongue, styloglossus, stylohyoid, genius-hyoid and mylohyoid.
Musculature of tongue, innervated by the Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII), except for the palatoglossus
(which is supplied by the Vagus nerve) is formed by the Occipital somites.
Muscle spindles in the human levator veli palatini and palatoglossus
The anterior tonsillar pillar is the mucosa-covered palatoglossus
muscle, and the posterior tonsillar pillar is the mucosa-covered palatopharyngeus muscle.
The exception is the palatoglossus
which receives its innervation from the pharyngeal plexus.
There is also differential activity of the palatoglossus
, palatopharyngeus, musculus uvulae, and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscles.
The anterior pillar is formed by the palatoglossus
muscle and posterior pillar is defined by the palatopharyngeus muscle.
In some cases, an increase in the thickness of the lateral pharyngeal wall is commensurate with the increase in muscle mass in the hyoglossus, styloglossus, palatoglossus
, palatopharyngeus, and pharyngeal constrictor muscles; these increases are linked to the need for excessive effort to overcome the increased muscle laxity in snoring or during apnea.