These scholars have identified a complex of muscles that considered key to the mechanism of swallowing, they are: higher pharyngeal constrictor, palatopharyngeal, palatoglossus
, posterior intrinsic muscles of the tongue, styloglossus, stylohyoid, genius-hyoid and mylohyoid.
The anterior pillar is formed by the palatoglossus
muscle and posterior pillar is defined by the palatopharyngeus muscle.
Musculature of tongue, innervated by the Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII), except for the palatoglossus
(which is supplied by the Vagus nerve) is formed by the Occipital somites.
Muscle spindles in the human levator veli palatini and palatoglossus
The anterior tonsillar pillar is the mucosa-covered palatoglossus
muscle, and the posterior tonsillar pillar is the mucosa-covered palatopharyngeus muscle.
The exception is the palatoglossus
which receives its innervation from the pharyngeal plexus.
There is also differential activity of the palatoglossus
, palatopharyngeus, musculus uvulae, and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscles.
through cortical bone,[mandible or maxilla] into deep [extrinsic] muscle of tongue [Genioglossus, hyoglossus, palatoglossus
, and styloglossus, maxillary sinus, skin of face)
In some cases, an increase in the thickness of the lateral pharyngeal wall is commensurate with the increase in muscle mass in the hyoglossus, styloglossus, palatoglossus
, palatopharyngeus, and pharyngeal constrictor muscles; these increases are linked to the need for excessive effort to overcome the increased muscle laxity in snoring or during apnea.
The vector forces of the palatoglossus
muscle lend support to this observation; histologic studies by Kuebn and Azzam have demonstrated that the elastic layer of the anterior tonsillar pillar is oriented in a mostly craniocaudal direction between the tongue and the soft palate.
With a 3-0 polydiaxanone suture (PDS), the palatopharyngeus muscle is attached to the palatoglossus
muscle on either side at the incisional site.
The efficiency of the action of upper airway dilating muscles--such as the genioglossus, geniohyoid, palatoglossus
, palatopharyngeus, stylopharyngeus, and tensor palatini--depends on the proper coordination of their contraction with that of the diaphragm, the vector angles through which they act, and the linear distance through which they contract.