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the discharge of urine from the bladder; urine from the kidneys is passed in spurts every few seconds along the ureters to the bladder, where it collects and later is passed to the outside via the urethra. Called also micturition and voiding.

The Urinary Process. Urination is a complex process controlled by muscles of the bladder and sphincter mechanism and by modulatory centers in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The detrusor muscle is a complex meshwork of interlaced smooth muscle bundles that contract in a way that squeezes urine from the bladder vesicle. The sphincter mechanism consists of smooth muscle in the bladder neck and proximal urethra, a striated muscle sphincter consisting of slow twitch muscle fibers in the urethral wall, and periurethral muscles that are a component of the pelvic floor muscles. The detrusor relaxes during bladder filling to accommodate increasing volumes at a low pressure, and the sphincter remains tightly closed. During urination, the detrusor contracts and the sphincter mechanism relaxes, allowing smooth outflow of urine.

As the bladder fills, modulatory centers in the brain prevent the occurrence of contractions. Meanwhile, the sphincter mechanism remains closed under autonomic and somatic nervous system control. During urination, the inhibition of contractions is removed and a reflex originates in the pontine micturition center. That causes the detrusor muscle to contract and the sphincter mechanism to relax. The location of the final output of central nervous system impulses to and from the bladder and sphincter is the sacral micturition center, located in spinal segments 2, 3, and 4, which must be intact for contraction to occur. Injury to the pontine micturition center will compromise the smooth coordination between sphincter mechanism and detrusor muscle, and injury to the brain will affect the volitional control of urine (bladder stability). See also urinary incontinence.


The passing of urine.
Synonym(s): miction, micturition (1) , uresis


/uri·na·tion/ (u″rĭ-na´shun) the discharge of urine.


Etymology: Gk, ouron + L, atus, process
the act of passing urine. Also called micturition, voiding.


The passing of urine.
Synonym(s): miction, micturition (1) , uresis.


the discharge of urine from the bladder; called also voiding of urine and micturition. Urine from the kidneys is passed every few seconds along the ureters to the bladder, where it collects until voided. During the act of urination the urine passes from the bladder to the outside via the urethra.

difficult urination
the bladder is continually full; the animal is straining to urinate, often grunting, but producing only a thin stream, often under great pressure. Called also dysuria, strangury.
dribbling urination
a steady, intermittent passage of small volumes of urine, sometimes precipitated by a change in posture or increase in intra-abdominal pressure, reflecting inadequate or lack of sphincter control. Seen with ectopic ureters and in paralysis of bladder. See also dribblers.
inappropriate urination
see inappropriate micturition.
increased urination frequency
if output of urine per urination is reduced the increased frequency is probably related to irritation in the tract due to cystitis or urethritis.
painful urination
dysuria; frequent passage of small amounts of urine with grunting and maintaining posture for some time afterwards.
submissive urination
an expression of behavioral submission by dogs.

Patient discussion about urination

Q. protien in urine what are the causes and preventions


Q. How you stop urinating frequently? I don't have any conditions that make me urinate often. I simply drink lots of water... Is there some trick I can employ so that I can still drink lots of water but not have to go to the bathroom so frequently?

A. I only drink water and green tea, Thanks.

Q. Today doctor removed my stunt of kidney. It inflamate while urination.. till How long i will feel like this?

A. You should consult your doctor, since instruments in the kidney and urinary tracts can cause infections (even after removing them), that may cause symptoms like you describe.

More discussions about urination
References in periodicals archive ?
Gonococcal urethritis causes painful urination and discharge, although approximately 25% of men have no symptoms.
In men, gonorrhea usually causes a discharge from the penis and painful urination.
Symptoms can include unusual discharge from the penis or vagina, painful urination, bleeding between periods, swollen or painful testicles, painful sex and abdominal pain.
The company reports major sales gains for its Albolene moisturizing facial cleanser, Adult Acnomel acne medication, Cystex painful urination remedy and Equalactin irritable bowel syndrome relief brands.
A UTI was defined as the presence of more than 50,000 colony forming units of a single species of bacteria per milliliter of urine and the report of 1 or more of the following symptoms: painful urination, frequent urination, urination at night, and urgent need to urinate, or blood in the urine.
Last year, during her menstrual periods, she began experiencing painful urination and lower hack and abdomen pains.
Low-level symptoms include painful urination and discharges but it has more serious implications for women.
Both advanced prostate cancer and benign prostate enlargement can produce the following symptoms: weak or interrupted urine flow, frequent or difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, painful urination or ejaculation, prolonged pain in the lower back, pelvis or upper thighs.
Less common: Stomach ulcers, GI bleeding, loss of appetite, hepatitis, gallbladder problems, painful urination, poor kidney function, kidney inflammation, blood in the urine, dizziness, fainting, and nervousness.
What It Might Do: Cranberries have been used since the turn of the century as a folk remedy for bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI's), which cause frequent and painful urination.
Symptoms may include sudden, severe pain and tenderness in the lower left abdomen, nausea, vomiting, chills and fever, changes in bowel habits, and even painful urination.