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the discharge of urine from the bladder; urine from the kidneys is passed in spurts every few seconds along the ureters to the bladder, where it collects and later is passed to the outside via the urethra. Called also micturition and voiding.

The Urinary Process. Urination is a complex process controlled by muscles of the bladder and sphincter mechanism and by modulatory centers in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The detrusor muscle is a complex meshwork of interlaced smooth muscle bundles that contract in a way that squeezes urine from the bladder vesicle. The sphincter mechanism consists of smooth muscle in the bladder neck and proximal urethra, a striated muscle sphincter consisting of slow twitch muscle fibers in the urethral wall, and periurethral muscles that are a component of the pelvic floor muscles. The detrusor relaxes during bladder filling to accommodate increasing volumes at a low pressure, and the sphincter remains tightly closed. During urination, the detrusor contracts and the sphincter mechanism relaxes, allowing smooth outflow of urine.

As the bladder fills, modulatory centers in the brain prevent the occurrence of contractions. Meanwhile, the sphincter mechanism remains closed under autonomic and somatic nervous system control. During urination, the inhibition of contractions is removed and a reflex originates in the pontine micturition center. That causes the detrusor muscle to contract and the sphincter mechanism to relax. The location of the final output of central nervous system impulses to and from the bladder and sphincter is the sacral micturition center, located in spinal segments 2, 3, and 4, which must be intact for contraction to occur. Injury to the pontine micturition center will compromise the smooth coordination between sphincter mechanism and detrusor muscle, and injury to the brain will affect the volitional control of urine (bladder stability). See also urinary incontinence.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


The passing of urine.
Synonym(s): miction, micturition (1) , uresis
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


The passing of urine.
Synonym(s): miction, micturition (1) , uresis.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

Patient discussion about urination

Q. protien in urine what are the causes and preventions


Q. How you stop urinating frequently? I don't have any conditions that make me urinate often. I simply drink lots of water... Is there some trick I can employ so that I can still drink lots of water but not have to go to the bathroom so frequently?

A. I only drink water and green tea, Thanks.

Q. Today doctor removed my stunt of kidney. It inflamate while urination.. till How long i will feel like this?

A. You should consult your doctor, since instruments in the kidney and urinary tracts can cause infections (even after removing them), that may cause symptoms like you describe.

More discussions about urination
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References in periodicals archive ?
As regards painful urination, 86 (19.1%) complained to be having this symptom while 364(80.9%) did not complain, 94.2% (81/86) of the women who had this complain tested positive for HSV-2 IgG, while 79.4% ( 289/364) who did not complaint, tested positive (p=0.001).
Of the five treatment failures, four were males and one female; the researchers noted that symptoms such as painful urination were associated with a greater risk of treatment failure.
* Painful urination or bowel movements during periods
The only parameter that didn't greatly improve was painful urination. And the treatment continued to be effective for up to 1 year, when (apparently) the research project ended.
EC is a rare inflammatory disease of the bladder, first described in 1960 by Brown.[sup.1] It has an unknown etiology, though it is characterized by numerous eosinophilic infiltrations of the bladder.[sup.1] Patients with EC show irritative urination symptoms frequently, with possible urgency, alongside dysuria, gross hematuria, suprapubic pain and painful urination. Sometimes bladder mass accumulation with the possibility of malignancy is also observed.
The FDA said amphetamine causes irregular heartbeat, confusion, urine retention and painful urination, hyperthermia, hyperreflexia, muscle pain, severe agitation, rapid breathing, and tremor.
Family Physician Dr Syed Hasnain Ali Johar, said appropriate use of carrot is helpful in fighting obesity, poisoning of the blood, gum disease, insomnia, inflamed kidney, liver, gallbladder, Alzheimer's disease, colitis, ulcer and painful urination.
Less common symptoms include painful urination, backaches, abdominal pain or weight loss.
Symptomatic women with trichomoniasis experience a frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor, possibly coupled with discomfort during intercourse, painful urination or genital itching.
Symptoms include frequent urination, increased urination at night, difficulty starting and maintaining a steady stream of urine, blood in the urine and dysuria (painful urination).
A Labrador retriever dog aged 7 years was presented with the history of haematuria, painful urination since last four days and retention of urine since a day.
While some men with gonorrhea may experience painful urination coupled with abnormal genital discharge, most women with gonorrhea experience either no symptoms or mistake the associated painful urination, bleeding and vaginal discharge with a bladder or vaginal infection.