history is calculated by multiplying the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day by the number of years the person has smoked.)
Gender was found to have no effect on plasma SP-D levels although females showed a significant deterioration of lung functions with similar or less pack-year
Everyone smoked currently (91%) or in the past for a median of 30 years and a median of 30 pack-years
. While 13% had a history of COPD, 5% reported asbestos exposure.
The MDA levels in COPD patients with pack-year
less than 10 years were lower and in patients with pack years 11-20 years and >20 years were statistically significant higher than the controls.
Participants had a mean age of 61.4 years and [greater than or equal to] 30 pack-year
history of smoking, with a mean of 56 pack-years
That means current smokers aged 55 to 74 with more than 30 pack-years
of smoking, or former smokers with that profile who have quit within the last 15 years, said the American College of Chest Physicians.
There was no significant difference when comparing the prevalence of various comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption between Caucasians and African Americans, except for slight differences in alcohol consumption of greater than 40 gm/day in African Americans (26%) versus Caucasians (20%) and in cigarette smoking of greater than 60 pack-years
in Caucasians (4.9%) versus African Americans (1.6%).
In the aforementioned survey, over half of the respondents acknowledged that they now include at least one of the two essential pack-year
questions, while 18% are asking ex-smokers why they quit.
Her social history was significant for a 60 pack-year
smoking habit and a distant history of frequent alcohol consumption.
* A pack-year
measures the number of packs smoked daily for life.
a 30 pack-year
history of tobacco smoking (an average of one pack a day for 30 years), and who have a written order from a physician or qualified non-physician practitioner.