To confirm TLR4 actions on PSP antiretroviral activity, viral load was measured in cell culture supernatant by HIV-1 p24 antigen
ELISA after TLR4 inhibition.
Ultrasensitive p24 antigen
assay for diagnosis of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.
Immunohistochemical localization of human immunodeiciency virus p24 antigen
in placental tissue.
Of the 2,120 patients whose Western blot was negative or indeterminate, six (0.28%) tested positive for p24 antigen
and were found by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) to have HIV viral loads of 10,000 to 100,000 copies/mL.
* During this period, HIV antibody and HIV p24 antigen
tests were used to screen all blood donations in South Africa.
Using MT-2 cell line and HIV-1 III B strain, sub toxic concentrations of the extracts were tested for its ability to inactivate cell free HIV and to inhibit HIV replication (Sasaki et al., 2003; Hu and Hsiung, 1989; Nokta and Pollard, 1992).Inhibition of HIV-1 III B growth was monitored by Inhibition of cytopathic effect (CPE) and reduction in HIV-1 p24 antigen
(Sasaki et al., 2003; Hu and Hsiung, 1989; Nokta and Pollard, 1992).
Tests for: The presence of HIV 1 and 2 antibodies, which indicate established HIV infection, as well as P24 antigen
, which detects a more recent exposure to the HIV virus.
These include the assay for p24 antigen
in the absence of antibodies, the sensitive/less sensitive ELISA to determine antibody levels, the BED-CEIA, and more recently, nucleic acid amplification in the absence of antibodies.
There are also two viral tests for HIV that measure the amount of virus in the blood directly: the p24 antigen
test and the RNA viral load test.
These tests, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or branched DNA (bDNA) technology, offered a more direct method of measuring the treatment effect on the virus in blood, as well as other tissue compartments, compared to measuring p24 antigen
or CD4 cells.
Only 2 of these units were identified when the standard HIV p24 antigen
immunoassay was used.
"Today's approval is particularly significant since Procleix can be used as an alternative to the currently-licensed p24 antigen
test for HIV-1.