p-value

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p-value

The probability, expressed as a number, that a particular effect or association is real or that a given statement or hypothesis is true. If a trial has n possible outcomes and m of these are the desired outcome, then the probability (p) of obtaining the desired outcome is m /n . If all the outcomes are as desired then m = n and p = 1. If none are as desired p = 0. So p is a measure that will alwys range from 0 to 1.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
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The results disclose a two tailed p-value of 0.476, which shows that the mean difference between the two banks with respect to return on equity is not statistically significantly different from zero.
Experiment p-value Degree of Paired groups (Sig.) freedom t value Proper 0.000 6 6.019 * nutrition Creatine 0.005 6 5.806 * Glutamine 0.587 6 5.527 Control 0.103 6 3.286 Experiment M [+ or -] SD Steps groups Proper 68.85 [+ or -] 3.13 Pre-test nutrition 77.00 [+ or -] 5.59 Post-test Creatine 56.85 [+ or -] 3.38 Pre-test 69.57 [+ or -] 6.99 Post-test Glutamine 61.00 [+ or -] 5.16 Pre-test 65.00 [+ or -] 5.56 Post-test Control 64.71 [+ or -] 7.82 Pre-test 65.57 [+ or -] 8.05 Post-test Table 2: Comparison of grip step variable in post-test step.
A test was considered significant if the p-value was less than or equal to 0.05.
Workers Remittances are most significant with lowest P-value. In the both tables, CPI proved to be insignificant as the exchange rate behavior moves according to demand and supply factors in country.
Presents the respondents' characteristics Factor Frequency Designation in the company Director 38 (27.5%) Manager 25 (18.1%) Executive 39 (28.3%) Non-executive 36 (26.1%) Company legal status Sole proprietor 66 (47.8%) Private limited 19 (13.8%) Public limited 31 (22.5%) Government link company 22 (15.9%) Experiences 1-5 years 66 (47.8%) 6-10 years 46 (33.3%) 11-15 years 16 (11.6%) More than 20 years 10 (7.2%) Quality or strategy management system 9 (6.5%) ISO 9000 10 (7.2%) TQM (total quality management) 22 (15.9%) TPM (total project management) 97 (70.3%) Conventional system Education 66 (47.8%) Bachelor's 22 (15.9%) Master's 2 (1.4%) Doctor's 48 (34.8%) Others Table 2: Functional competencies versus designation Factor F P-value 1.
It is found that the F-value is 0.027 and P-value is 0.876.
Summary of ADF unit root test for parity conditions Sample Period: 01:1997-01:2005 RIP CHEU CHJAP CHUK CHUS [B.sup.[mu]] -0.678 -0.508 -0.723 -0.907 p-value 0 0 0 0 [ADF.sup.[mu]]-Stat -5.285 -4.317 -5.551 -6.72 p-value 0 0.0007 0 0 Conclusion I(0) I(0) I(0) I(0) UIP [B.sup.[mu]] -0.36 -0.50 -0.48 -0.08 p-value 0.0002 0 0 0.017 [ADF.sup.[mu]]-Stat -3.902 -4.555 -4.538 -2.413 p-value 0.0029 0.0003 0.0003 0.1407 Conclusion I(0) I(0) I(0) I(I) PPP [B.sup.[mu]] -0.994 -0.966 -1.149 -1.082 p-value 0 0 0 0 [ADF.sup.[mu]]-Stat -6.592 -6.952 -7.806 -7.56 p-value 0 0 0 0 Conclusion I(0) I(0) I(0) I(0) Note: Regression with linear time trend provides the same conclusion and results are available upon request.
A Mann-Whitney test between leeward and windward sides had a p-value of 0.031.
Thus, in order to test the hypothesis [H.sub.0] : [SR.sub.Portfolio]-[SR.sub.Benchmark] = 0 we compute a two-sided p-value using the studentized circular block bootstrap proposed in Ledoit and Wolf (2008) with B=1,000 bootstrap resamples and a block size equal to b=5.

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