oxytocin


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Related to oxytocin: Oxycontin, Pitocin

oxytocin

 [ok″se-to´sin]
a hypothalamic hormone stored in and released from the posterior pituitary; it may also be prepared synthetically or obtained from the posterior pituitary of domestic animals. It acts as a powerful stimulant to the pregnant uterus, especially toward the end of gestation, and also causes milk to be expressed from the alveoli into the lactiferous ducts during breastfeeding. Injection of oxytocin may be used to induce labor or strengthen uterine contractions during labor, to contract uterine muscle after delivery of the placenta, and to control postpartum hemorrhage. It must be administered with care to avoid trauma to the mother or infant by hyperactivity of uterine muscles during labor. Oxytocin also may be administered intravenously by slow drip or applied to the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity to be absorbed into the bloodstream.
oxytocin challenge test (OCT) a type of contraction stress test to assess placental reserve for transmitting oxygen to the fetus and detecting insufficiency by observing the fetal heart rate response to oxytocin-induced contraction. See also fetal monitoring.

oxytocin

Pitocin, Syntocinon (CA) (UK), Syntometrine (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Posterior pituitary hormone

Therapeutic class: Uterine-active agent

Pregnancy risk category NR

FDA Box Warning

• Drug isn't indicated for elective induction of labor (defined as initiation of labor in pregnant woman with no medical indications for induction). Available data aren't adequate to evaluate benefits versus risk.

Action

Unknown. Thought to directly stimulate smooth muscle contractions in uterus and cervix.

Availability

Injection: 10 units/ml ampule or vial

Indications and dosages

To induce or stimulate labor

Adults: Initially, 1-ml ampule (10 units) in compatible I.V. solution infused at 1 to 2 milliunits/minute (0.001 to 0.002 units/minute). Increase rate in increments of 1 to 2 milliunits/minute q 15 to 30 minutes until acceptable contraction pattern is established.

To control postpartum bleeding

Adults: 10 to 40 units in compatible I.V. solution infused at rate adequate to control bleeding; or 10 units I.M. after placenta delivery

Incomplete abortion

Adults: 10 units in compatible I.V. solution infused at 10 to 20 milliunits/minute (0.01 to 0.02 units/minute)

Off-label uses

• Antepartal fetal heart rate testing

• Breast enlargement

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug

• Cephalopelvic disproportion

• Fetal distress when delivery is not imminent

• Prolonged use in uterine inertia or severe toxemia

• Hypertonic or hyperactive uterine pattern

• Unfavorable fetal position or presentation that's undeliverable without conversion

• Labor induction or augmentation when vaginal delivery is contraindi-cated (as in invasive cervical cancer, active genital herpes, or total placenta previa)

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• previous cervical or uterine surgery, history of uterine sepsis

• breastfeeding patients.

Administration

• Reconstitute by adding 1 ml (10 units) to 1,000 ml of normal saline solution, lactated Ringer's solution, or dextrose 5% in water.

Don't give by I.V. bolus injection.

• Infuse I.V. using controlled-infusion device.

• Be aware that drug isn't routinely given I.M.

• Know that drug should be given only to inpatients at critical care facilities when prescriber is immediately available.

Adverse reactions

CNS: seizures, coma, neonatal brain damage, subarachnoid hemorrhage

CV: premature ventricular contractions, arrhythmias, neonatal bradycardia

GI: nausea, vomiting

GU: postpartal hemorrhage; pelvic hematoma; uterine hypertonicity, spasm, or tetanic contraction; abruptio placentae; uterine rupture (with excessive doses)

Hematologic: afibrinogenemia

Hepatic: neonatal jaundice

Other: hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, low 5-minute Apgar score (neonate)

Interactions

Drug-drug. Sympathomimetics: postpartal hypertension

Thiopental anesthetics: delayed anesthesia induction

Vasoconstrictors: severe hypertension (when given within 3 to 4 hours of oxytocin)

Drug-herbs. Ephedra (ma huang): increased hypertension

Patient monitoring

Continuously monitor contractions, fetal and maternal heart rate, and maternal blood pressure and ECG. Discontinue infusion if uterine hyper-activity occurs.

Monitor patient extremely closely during first and second stages of labor because of risk of cervical laceration, uterine rupture, and maternal and fetal death.

• When giving drug to control postpartal bleeding, monitor and record vaginal bleeding.

• Assess fluid intake and output. Watch for signs and symptoms of water intoxication.

Patient teaching

• Inform patient about risks and benefits of oxytocin-induced labor.

Teach patient to recognize and immediately report adverse drug effects.

p

ox·y·to·cin (OXT),

(ok'sē-tō'sin),
A nonapeptide neurohypophysial hormone, differing from human vasopressin in having a leucyl residue at position 8 and an isoleucyl residue at position 3, that causes myometrial contractions at term and promotes milk release during lactation; used to induce or stimulate labor, to manage postpartum hemorrhage and atony, and to relieve painful breast engorgement.
Synonym(s): ocytocin
[G. okytokos, swift birth]

oxytocin

(ŏk′sĭ-tō′sĭn)
n.
1. A short polypeptide hormone, C43H66N12O12S2, released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, that stimulates the contraction of smooth muscle of the uterus during labor and facilitates ejection of milk from the breast during nursing.
2. A synthetic form of this hormone, used as a drug to induce labor and to control postpartum hemorrhage.

oxytocin

Endocrinology A nonapeptide hormone which stimulates contraction of uterine smooth muscles and promotes milk ejection in females. Cf ADH.

ox·y·to·cin

(ok'si-tō'sin)
A nonapeptide neurohypophysial hormone that causes myometrial contractions at term and promotes milk release during lactation; used for the induction or stimulation of labor, in the management of postpartum hemorrhage and atony, and to relieve painful breast engorgement. It is produced in the posterior pituitary gland.

oxytocin

An OXYTOCIC hormone produced by the pituitary gland. The hormone promotes contraction of the womb and the letdown of milk during suckling. It is used as a drug in obstetrics to bring on labour at term and to augment slow labour. There is recent evidence that the hormone may have a role to play in promoting trust between humans. The drug is on the WHO official list. A brand name is Syntocinon.

oxytocin

a hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the PITUITARY GLAND,causing contraction of the uterine muscle. The hormone is important to parturition and, afterwards, for getting the uterus back to its normal size and shape.

Oxytocin

A hormone that stimulates the uterus to contract during child birth and the breasts to release milk.

ox·y·to·cin

(OXT) (ok'si-tō'sin)
Nonapeptide neurohypophysial hormone that causes myometrial contractions at term and promotes milk release during lactation.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the same meta-analysis about 2,000 CDs were analyzed, with no significant difference for misoprostol plus oxytocin versus oxytocin alone for the following outcomes: maternal death, intensive care unit admissions, and PPH [greater than or equal to] 1,000 mL blood loss (6.2% vs 6.5%).
Oxytocin is used habitually in obstetrics as an uterotonic agent4.
Minimum effective bolus dose of oxytocin during elective Caesarean delivery.
From time to time, the CDSCO as well as State/UT Drug Control Authorities have conducted various raids to unearth clandestine manufacture, sale of oxytocin in the country and necessary actions have been taken against the accused as per the provisions of Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940 & Rules, 1945 thereunder.
class="MsoNormal130,000 DEATHS class="MsoNormalThe study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine revealed that the new drug is equivalent to standard treatment of oxytocin for the prevention of blood loss of at least 500 ml.
What's more, since both drugs in the study were kept at low temperatures to ensure maximum efficacy of oxytocin, the trial may underestimate the benefit expected with heat-stable carbetocin use in real-life settings where oxytocin may have degraded due to exposure to higher temperatures.
This study was conducted to determine the The Effects of Intrapartum Oxytocin Induction on Labor Pain and Fear of Labor for achieving these aims.
Of 144 infants born to women who consented to randomization, those whose mothers received intravenous oxytocin within 15 seconds of delivery (n = 70) gained a mean 86 g (standard deviation, 48; 95% confidence interval, 74-97) in the 3 minutes after delivery before umbilical cord clamping.
In this trial, we aim to compare the most frequent adverse effects of both carbetocin and oxytocin, that is, nausea, vomiting, and flushing during primary uncomplicated caesarean section and the haemodynamic effect.
Although it has been known for a long time that oxytocin exerts modulatory effects on synaptic activity, recent studies have produced many important findings related to the neuron and glial cell structure, development, and functionality.
Instead, this study focused on oxytocin and vasopressin, sometimes considered "yin and yang" hormones.
It's because of an association with genetic variations in sensitivity for the hormone oxytocin, according to a new study.